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Nihilism means "nothing." It is the lack of belief in meaning or substance in an area of philosophy.
Existentialism originates from Soren Kierkegaard and Nietzche. It focuses on the problems produced by existential nihilism. For instance:
Stoicism was popular in ancient Greece and Rome and is practiced by many in high-stress environments.
Stoicism focuses on how to live in a world where things don't go as planned. The idea is ...
Hedonism is the idea that pleasure and happiness are the keys to a good life. Modern philosophers would say that pleasure is a kind of happiness, but not the only happiness.
Epicurus tied hed...
Marxism is based on the collected ideas of Karl Marx, the German philosopher. He critiqued capitalism. Main ideas:
It is focused on the idea of verifications. It is trying to base all knowledge on either empirical data or logical tautologies.
The underlying principle of verificationism cannot be shown to ...
Taoism is based around the Tao Te Ching, written by the ancient Chinese philosopher Lao-Tzu. It is based around ideas of:
Rationalism is the idea that knowledge must come from reason and thought, rather than empirical evidence. Socrates, Rene Descartes, and Spinoza argued for rationalism.
Today, most thinkers co...
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to the perspective. This idea can be applied to morality or truth, where some argue that there are no moral facts or absolute truths.
Buddhism is based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha. Although Buddhism has a diverse range of thought, it is bound together by the idea that suffering has a cause.
Buddhism believe suffering...
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It cannot be acquired by pleasurable experiences but only by identifying and realizing our own potential, moral and creative, in our specific environments, with our particular family, friends and colleagues, and helping others to do so.
Aldous Huxley's The Perennial Philosophy(1945) is an extraordinary work of synthesis, introducing global (particularly eastern) spirituality into mainstream western culture.
The Author and Philosopher's fresh take on religion, shaping it as an 'empirical spirituality' was a huge influence in the 1960s and which has since then led to more people (now 27% in the US) being 'Spiritual but not Religious'
Aldous Huxley was heavily criticized after his death by newer philosophers who didn't subscribe to the Perennial Philosophy.
While the author insisted that the ultimate mystical experience is the moment of pure oneness with God where the concepts of 'I', language, image and culture are dissolved, his critics argued that all religions are true and some of them are truer than the others.
One of the critics states that human beings construct reality using their bodies, rituals, words, actions and cultures.
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Far too many people spend 80% of their waking hours slogging away at a desk and view any break from this routine as a naughty deviation from duties.
Workism, where people worship their work, ...
Many people cannot choose a reasonable work schedule:
This widespread workaholism, in part, reflects the misguided notion that having fun is somehow an over-indulgence.
Many people across the world take six weeks of vacation a year and still manage to produce functioning companies and political systems.
Working more than 55 hours a week produces diminishing returns of productivity.
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