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Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World by David Epstein

Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World by David Epstein

by David Epstein

‘Kind’ vs ‘wicked’ learning environments

Learning environments can be split into two:

  • The kind ones, where patterns repeat and specialists get better with experiences, such as in chess.
  • The wicked ones, where there is a lot of spontaneity and unpredictability involved and experienc...

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Modern work demands knowledge transfer and abstract thinking, things which are not being actively taught in our highly-specialized academic curriculums.

It’s harder to be creative in a field the longer you have been studying it. It is best to insist on ’having one foot...

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Children who try their hand at playing multiple instruments have a higher chance of becoming elites in one (even if they specialize later in life) than those who have been presented with a particular instrument from a very early age.

The figlie of the ...

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  • Fast and easy is a no-go when it comes to learning. Painful and uncompetitive as it may sound, slow and difficult is the proper approach to learning.
  • We want knowledge that is durable (it sticks) and flexible (it can be applied broadly).

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  • Relying on experience from a single domain is limiting. Going from the “inside view” to the “outside view”, i.e. switching the mindset from narrow to broad, is the practice of looking outside of the surface features of a project for structurally-similar analogies.
  • ...

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  • Winners quit fast and often when a plan is not a good fit. The sunken cost fallacy might try to sway our decisions, but the “willingess to jetisson” (quit and switch paths when they are no longer a quality match for us) is a key trait for late specializatio...

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  • The best forecasters view their ideas as hypothesis that need testing; they want help from others through debate to falsify their notions.
  • Science curiosity is important, as is being engaged in active open-mindedness. Good judges are good belief up...

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All the information we need is already out in the wild, we just need to integrate it.

A successful company culture is reached when an informal chain of communication - which facilitates access to meaningful information - meets a fo...

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