Stoicism originated in Athens with Zeno of Citium, around 300B.C.
Stoic philosophy is centered on a metaphysical principle: that reality is governed by logos and that what happens is necessary.
For Stoicism, the goal of human philosophizing is the achievement of a state of absolute tranquility. This is obtained through the progressive education to independence from one’s needs.
The influence of Stoicism on the development of Western philosophy is hard to overestimate; among its most devoted sympathizers were the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the economist Hobbes, and the philosopher Descartes.
Throughout history, Epicureanism has often been misunderstood as a doctrine preaching indulgence into the most vicious bodily pleasures.
On the contrary, Epicurus himself was known for his temperate eating habits, and for his moderation. His exhortations were directed towards the cultivation of friendship as well as any activity which most elevates our spirits, such as music, literature, and art.
Among its metaphysical principles are the theses that our world is one out of many possible worlds and that what happens does so by chance.