When you explain and describe an idea in your own words, you consciously associate what you want to learn with what you've already learned.
Why it works: It encodes information into your long-term memory more effectively. The more you connect new knowledge to what you already know, the better because it generates more cues that help you retrieve the knowledge.
How to apply it: Ask yourself questions like "How can I apply this to my own life?" and "In what situations would this be useful?"
Retrieval is when you try to recall what you've learned. There are many ways to do this, some better than others.
Why it works: It strengthens your memory and interrupts forgetting. The act of retrieving information helps facilitate long-term recall.
How to apply it: Summarize the material in your own words. Don't copy and paste it; you won't get the learning benefits from it. Use your own memory, even if it feels hard.
This means you repeat the same information across increasing intervals. The harder it feels to recall it, the stronger the effect.
Why it works: It makes your brain work harder to retrieve your knowledge, which actually helps you learn more effectively.
How to apply it: Revisit your summaries and test yourself on what you remember. What were the action points? Did you apply them? If not, what hindered you?
This involves mixing different approaches, concepts, and viewpoints into your learning. It helps you solidify your understanding and promotes creativity and flexibility.
Why it works: While it feels more difficult, if you spread out your study over a period of time, you can remember it better.
How to apply it: Read several books simultaneously. Start a new one before you finish another. You want it to feel difficult because then it's more effective.
When you test yourself on the material, you can identify knowledge gaps and bring weak areas to light.
Why it works: It helps you overcome the illusion of knowledge that comes from reading. It also helps you adjust your sense of what you know and don't know.
How to apply it: Explain what you've learned to someone else. It forces you to filter relevant information, organize it, and articulate it in your own words, which will help strengthen your understanding.
1. Highlight everything you want to remember.
2. Use your desktop browser to visit your Kindle Notes page (this is easier than trying to view and edit on the device itself).
3. Browse through your highlights, delete what you no longer need, and add notes to the ones you really like.
4. Readwise is another helpful resource. It connects to your Kindle account and imports all your highlights, then creates notecards from them, which can be exported into your favorite note-taking app.
#1 Our brain’s capacity is limited
Storing information actually increases your brain's capacity for learning.
#2 Effective learning should feel easy
When it feels harder, it can enhance your long-term retention.
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