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A visual history of pandemics

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https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/a-visual-history-of-pandemics

weforum.org

A visual history of pandemics
As humans have spread across the world, so have infectious diseases. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant, though not every outbreak reaches pandemic level as the COVID-19 has.

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A History Of Pandemics

  • A Pandemic is defined as the proliferation of a disease over the whole country or the entire world.
  • Diseases and illnesses have troubled humanity since the earliest days, but ...

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Quarantined

  • The original use of the word Quarantine was the act of anchoring a ship arrived in Venice, Italy, for 40 days before landing.
  • Infectiousness of any disease is measured by the reprod...

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Spreading of diseases

Transmissible diseases existed during humankind’s hunter-gatherer days, but the shift to agrarian life 10,000 years ago created communities that made epidemics more possible.
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430 B.C.: Plague of Athens

The earliest recorded pandemic happened during the Peloponnesian War. It passed through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt,  and it reached Athens as the Spartans laid siege. Two-thirds of the population died.
The disease, suspected to have been typhoid fever, weakened the Athenians significantly and played a big role in their defeat by the Spartans.

165 A.D.: The Antonine Plague

It may have been an early appearance of smallpox that began with the Huns.
The Huns then infected the Germans, who passed it to the Romans and then returning troops spread it throughout the Roman empire.  This plague continued until about 180 A.D., claiming Emperor Marcus Aurelius as one of its victims.

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The Third Cholera Pandemic (1852-1860)

The Third Cholera Pandemic (1852-1860)

Cholera is a bacterial infection and is mainly contracted through food and water.

The largest cholera outbreak originated in India and spread beyond its borders, killing about 23 000 people ...

The Asian Flu Pandemic (1957)

The Asian Flu Pandemic was an outbreak of avian influenza that started in China and spread worldwide.

The estimated death rate was one to two million people.

Typhus fever in World War 1 (1945)

Typhus fever is spread by lice. The war brought on poor sanitation that probably led to a higher density of lice and made the transmission more prevalent.

Typhus fever caused three million deaths in Russia alone.

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Existing divisions

Epidemics and other natural disasters tend to both illuminate and reinforce existing divisions.

  • The division in our society is between those who can keep their jobs and work from...

Hope for low-income workers

History offers a precedent. Collective anger at low wages and poor working protections can produce lasting social change.

  • One study that looked at 15 significant pandemics revealed an increase in wages for three decades afterward.
  • After the Plague of Justinian, worker incomes doubled.
  • After the Black Death in the 1300s, textile workers in northern France received three raises a year.

Workers' rights

The pandemic may be bad for workers’ rights.

  • The pandemic might be blamed on outsiders - the Black Death led to massacres of Jews across Europe.
  • In the past decades, many low-income whites have become allied with other whites, not with poor people.
  • Organized labor is still far off. Busy employees at large retailers are spread across the country and don't have a centralized way to communicate.

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