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The Origins of Psychology: History Through the Years

The Origins of Psychology: History Through the Years

https://www.verywellmind.com/a-brief-history-of-psychology-through-the-years-2795245

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The need to understand psychology

The beginnings of psychology differ significantly from contemporary conceptions of the field. Modern psychology covers a range of topics, looking at human behavior en mental processes from the neur...

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The Beginnings of Psychology

The Beginnings of Psychology

Psychology was not separate from philosophy until the late 1800s.

  • During the 17th century, philosopher Rene Descartes introduced the idea of dualism - that the mind and body were two...

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Psychology as a Separate Discipline

  • During the mid-1800s, a German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt outlined many of the major connections between the science of physiology and the study of human thought and behavior.
  • He v...

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Structuralism

Structuralism

Edward B. Titchener found psychology's first major school of thought.

  • According to the structuralists, human consciousness consisted of smaller parts. Trained subjects would brea...

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Functionalism

Functionalism

William James was one of the major American psychologists during the mid to late 1800s.

  • His classic textbook "The Principles of Psychology" became the standard text in psyc...

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Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis
  • Austrian physician Sigmund Freud proposed a theory of personality that emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind.
  • He believed early childhood experiences and unconscious im...

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Behaviorism

Psychology changed significantly during the early 20th century. Behaviorism rose to dominance and rejected the emphasis on both the conscious and unconscious mind.

  • Behaviorism aimed ...

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The Third Force

The first half of the 20th century was dominated by psychoanalysis and behaviorism. In the second half, a new school of thought, known as humanistic psychology, emerged. It is also referred to as t...

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Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive revolution took hold in psychology during the 1950s and 1960s and began to replace psychoanalysis and behaviorism as the main approach to the study of psychology. Psychol...

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Psychology Continues to Grow

Since 1960, psychology continues to develop new ideas and perspectives. Recent research in psychology looks at many aspects of human experience, from biological influences on behavior to the impact...

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Repression as a defense mechanism

Repression as a defense mechanism

Repression can best be defined as the psychological defense mechanism that involves pushing undesired thoughts into the unconscious in order to not think about them anymore.

...

Types of repression

Repression is of two types: primary and proper.

While the primary one takes into account the fact of hiding undesired thoughts or facts, the proper one takes place whenever an individual becomes aware of the thoughts that had initially been hidden and tries to hide them again.

Repression and its way of functioning

The objective of hiding our undesired thoughts in our unconsciousness is to feel less anxious.

However, Freud stated that this process can backfire at any point, as these hidden thoughts or feelings can still create anxiety, eventually leading to psychological distress.

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Aphantasia: Image Not Found

Aphantasia: Image Not Found

Aphantasia is a phenomenon in which an individual cannot conjure an image of a face or thing in their minds. There is no inner ‘mind’s eye’ in these people and the mental imagery i...

Discovery of Aphantasia

Aphantasia was first described in the early 1800s by Francis Galton in a paper on mental imagery. It was not until 2015 that the phenomenon was further studied and the term was coined.

One of the major studies was with a patient who had undergone a minor surgery in 2005 and later could no longer generate visual images within the ‘mind’s eye’. The details of the study were published in 2010, which led to many others coming up with similar symptoms.

Binocular Rivalry

This was a technique used by the researchers to help test the image forming inside the brain of the individuals.

The experiment led to the finding that a recent viewing of an image had no correlation with the imagining of the image.

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Consciousness: A Subjective Awareness

Consciousness: A Subjective Awareness

Consciousness is your own awareness of your thoughts, memories, feelings, sensations, and environments. This awareness is subjective.

Your conscious experiences can change from one moment t...

Types of Consciousness

Changes in consciousness can result in changes in perception, thinking, and interpretations of the world.

  • Some different states of consciousness include dreams, hallucinations, hypnosis, meditation, sleep, and states induce by psychoactive drugs.
  • Altered levels of consciousness can occur and may be caused by medical or mental conditions that change awareness, e.g., coma, confusion, delirium, disorientation, lethargy, and stupor.

Changes in Consciousness

Changes of consciousness may be a sign of medical conditions, for example, aneurysm, brain infection, brain tumor or injury, dementia, drug use, epilepsy, heart disease, heatstroke, low blood sugar, poisoning, or shock.

If you think you are experiencing changes in consciousness, talk to your doctor.

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