"Learning is deeper and more durable when it's effortful... Learning that's easy is like writing in sand, here today and gone tomorrow."
- Make It Stick: The Science Of Successful Learning
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Don't just re-read your notes. When you first read, you extract a lot of information, but when you do it the second time, you read with a sense of 'I know this, I know this.'
Read once and then quiz yourself. Retrieving that information is what actually produces more robust learning and memory.
Even if you get the answers wrong, you'll still have an idea of what you don't know. This helps guide your studying more effectively.
Relate new information to prior information for better learning.
During a second reading, try to connect new information to something you already know.
When you explain and describe an idea in your own words, you consciously associate what you want to learn with what you've already learned.
Why it works: It encodes informati...
Retrieval is when you try to recall what you've learned. There are many ways to do this, some better than others.
Why it works: It strengthens your memory and interrupts forgetting. The act of retrieving information helps facilitate long-term recall.
How to apply it: Summarize the material in your own words. Don't copy and paste it; you won't get the learning benefits from it. Use your own memory, even if it feels hard.
This means you repeat the same information across increasing intervals. The harder it feels to recall it, the stronger the effect.
Why it works: It makes your brain work harder to retrieve your knowledge, which actually helps you learn more effectively.
How to apply it: Revisit your summaries and test yourself on what you remember. What were the action points? Did you apply them? If not, what hindered you?
... you need two kinds of prior knowledge:
When learning is difficult, you're doing your best learning, in the same way that lifting a weight at the limit of your capacity makes you stronger.
When you keep trying to remember a piece of information, you interrupt the forgetting process and help cement the memory of that information into your brain.
It's a strategy of mixing up the type of problems you solve when you're testing yourself.
That way, the testing conditions are more similar to real life, where you first have to figure out what kind of problem you have on your hands and then solve it.
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