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The History of Coffee

The New World

In the mid-1600s, coffee was brought to New Amsterdam, later called New York by the British.

When the colonists revolted against a heavy tax on tea imposed by King George III, known as the Boston Tea Party, it changed the American drinking preference to coffee.

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IDEA EXTRACTED FROM:

The History of Coffee

The History of Coffee

http://www.ncausa.org/about-coffee/history-of-coffee

ncausa.org

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Key Ideas

An Ethiopian Legend

The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee. He noticed his goats became energetic after eating the berries from a certain tree.

Kaldi shared his findings with the abbot of a monastery, who found a drink from the berries kept him alert. The abbot, in turn, shared his findings with other monks. Word moved east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula.

The Arabian Peninsula

Coffee cultivation and trade began on the Arabian Peninsula. Coffee was being grown in the Yemeni district of Arabia. By the 16th century, it was known in Persia, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey.

Coffee was enjoyed in homes and also in the many public coffee houses. Coffee houses quickly became such an important center for the exchange of information that they were often referred to as “Schools of the Wise.”

Coffee Comes to Europe

By the 17th century, coffee had made its way to Europe and was becoming popular across the continent. Despite the controversy, coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany, and Holland.

Coffee began to replace the common breakfast drink beverages of the time — beer and wine.

The New World

In the mid-1600s, coffee was brought to New Amsterdam, later called New York by the British.

When the colonists revolted against a heavy tax on tea imposed by King George III, known as the Boston Tea Party, it changed the American drinking preference to coffee.

Plantations Around the World

There was fierce competition to cultivate coffee outside of Arabia.

The Dutch finally got seedlings in the latter half of the 17th century. The plants thrived on the Island of Java, what is now Indonesia.

The Dutch had a productive and growing trade in coffee and expanded the cultivation to the islands of Sumatra and Celebes.

Coming to the Americas

In 1714, the Mayor of Amsterdam presented a gift of a young coffee plant to King Louis XIV of France.

A young naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu obtained a seedling from the King's plant and transported it safely to Martinique.

This seedling was the parent of all coffee trees throughout the Caribbean, South and Central America. After crude oil, coffee became the most sought commodity in the world.

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Coffee first mentioned

The first person known to write about coffee was a Persian physician and philosopher named Rhazes or Razi (850 to 922 AD), who characterized it as a medicine.

Other early writings establish Y...

The Ottoman Empire 

It was the Ottoman Empire that brought coffee to entirely new places, for new reasons:

  • The Muslim religion's prohibition of alcohol consumption gave a big lift to coffee.
  •  Coffee became a substitute for wine.

Coffee diffused quickly throughout the Ottoman Empire, giving rise to the world's first coffee houses.

"The bitter invention of Satan"

The Muslim coffees were introduced to Christian Europe but met with strong resistance from the Catholic Church. The Pope's Councilmen asked Pope Clemente VIII to declare the black beverage "the bitter invention of Satan."

The Pope opted for a taste before deciding. He liked what he tried, declaring, "this devil's drink is so delicious ... we should cheat the devil by baptizing it."

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Coffee in moderation

Coffee was once believed to be a possible carcinogen. However, the evidence is consistent that coffee in moderation is associated with a lower risk of mortality.

Research found moderate ...

The way coffee is prepared matters
  • Roasting reduces the number of chlorogenic acids, but other antioxidant compounds are formed.
  • Instant coffee may not have the same health benefits.
  • The oil in boiled coffee has cafestol and kahweol, compounds known to raise LDL, the bad cholesterol, and slightly lower HDL, the good cholesterol. However, the clinical significance of such small increases in cholesterol may be questionable.
Coffee and caffeine
  • A typical 12-ounce serving of drip coffee has 200 milligrams of caffeine.
  • Instant coffee has 140 milligrams of caffeine.
  • Espresso has the highest concentration of caffeine, 70 milligrams per one-ounce shot, but is consumed in smaller quantities.
  • Brewed decaf has caffeine too - about 8 milligrams.
  • Some people have a genetic variant that slows their metabolism for caffeine and keeps them awake deep into the night.

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Ancient Origins of Halloween

Halloween’s origins date back to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain, in the area that is now Ireland.  On the night of October 31 they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the gho...

All Saints' Day
  • On May 13, 609 A.D., Pope Boniface IV dedicated the Pantheon in Rome in honor of all Christian martyrs and the Catholic feast of All Martyrs Day was established. Pope Gregory III later expanded the festival and moved the observance from May 13 to November 1.
  • The influence of Christianity spread into Celtic lands, where it gradually blended with and supplanted older Celtic rites. In 1000 A.D., the church made November 2 All Souls’ Day, a day to honor the dead. It was probably done to replace the Celtic festival.
  • All Souls’ Day was celebrated similarly to Samhain, with big bonfires, parades and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels and devils. The All Saints’ Day celebration was also called All-hallows or All-hallowmas, and eventually, Halloween.
Halloween Comes to America

The celebration of Halloween was limited in colonial New England, but as the beliefs and customs of different European ethnic groups and the American Indians meshed, a distinctly American version of Halloween began to emerge.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, America was flooded with Irish immigrants, fleeing the Irish Potato Famine. This helped to popularize the celebration of Halloween nationally.

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