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Ventilator vs. respirator, quarantine vs. isolation: 2020 pandemic terms, defined

Medical equipment

  • A ventilator is a machine that assists a patient in breathing when they have trouble breathing on their own.
  • PPE (Personal protective equipment), such as masks, gloves, face shields, and other gear that keeps health care workers from catching an infection.
  • A respirator is a face mask that seals around the mouth and filters out particles from the air before they are breathed in.
  • Surgical mask or face mask are loose-fitting masks that don't filter out all the particles but stop a wearer from spreading droplets of contagion when they sneeze or cough.

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Ventilator vs. respirator, quarantine vs. isolation: 2020 pandemic terms, defined

Ventilator vs. respirator, quarantine vs. isolation: 2020 pandemic terms, defined

https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/3/27/21190774/ventilator-respirator-quarantine-isolation-definitions-covid-19-pandemic-terms

vox.com

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Key Ideas

Outbreak terms

  • Endemic is a disease that regularly infects humans, like the flu.
  • Pandemic is a worldwide spread of a new disease. 
  • Epidemic is a disease that's spreading over a wide area but not over the whole world.
  • R0 (r-nought) describes how contagious a disease is. R0 of 2 means each infected person may spread the virus to two others.
  • CFR, or Case Fatality Rate, is the percentage of the virus cases that are fatal.
  • Mode of transmission - how a virus spreads from one person to another. The primary mode of transmission seems to be via droplets.
  • Herd immunity occurs when enough people become immune to a disease so that the spread of the disease begins to slow, or stop, within a population.

Public health measures

  • Social distancing is a slew of tactics meant to keep people at a six feet distance from each other to keep droplets from an infected person's nose or mouth from landing on another person.
  • Quarantine is restricting the movement of, or isolating, people who might have been exposed to an infection but who aren't sick.
  • Isolation is separating people with confirmed or probable infections from other healthy people.
  • Lockdown is a term used by public health officials or lawyers to refer to anything from mandatory geographic quarantine to non-mandatory recommendations to shelter in place, to anything in between.
  • Cordon sanitaire is the restriction of movement in and out of a region or city.
  • Shelter in place is an order requesting people to stay at home, except for trips to the grocery store, pharmacies, and other essential errands.

Medical equipment

  • A ventilator is a machine that assists a patient in breathing when they have trouble breathing on their own.
  • PPE (Personal protective equipment), such as masks, gloves, face shields, and other gear that keeps health care workers from catching an infection.
  • A respirator is a face mask that seals around the mouth and filters out particles from the air before they are breathed in.
  • Surgical mask or face mask are loose-fitting masks that don't filter out all the particles but stop a wearer from spreading droplets of contagion when they sneeze or cough.

Pharmaceuticals

  • Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine: An antimalarial drug that is potentially useful in treating the new virus. Doctors are also testing antiviral medication and some HIV drugs that are used to treat arthritis and lupus.
  • Fever is when the body temperature exceeds 100.4°F.
  • Pneumonia. When the small air sacs of the lungs become inflamed and fill up with fluid.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A technology used for the new virus diagnostic testing by looking for the virus’s genetic signature.
  • Serological tests.  A diagnostic test that looks for antibodies and can tell if someone has ever been infected with the virus, and could suggest they are possibly immune.
  • A vaccine is a formulation to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies for a pathogen in the hope of providing immunity.
  • Therapeutics. Drugs that lessen the severity of disease symptoms.

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The State Of The Virus

Life around the world is changing dramatically as we practise social distancing, staying away from our friends and avoiding going to our favourite places, or even being unable to work. We already l...

Uncertain Time Frame

Top experts say the virus is going to be circulating for a year or two and can keep infecting people, causing outbreaks until there is a vaccine or treatment to stop it. If we drop the unpleasant and strict measures, the virus outbreak can know no boundaries or limits of infections. It won’t simply go away in two weeks.

Guidelines by WHO
  • Wash your hands regularly, and for at least 20 seconds.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then dispose of it properly.
  • Clean and disinfect doors, handles and objects that are touched all the time.
  • Contact a health professional if you have symptoms; fever and a dry cough are most common.
  • DON’T touch your face.
  • DON’T go out of your home.

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What we know

The virus that is causing the current outbreak is a respiratory one and spreads through droplet infection.

  • There have been no known cases of the virus spreading through "smear" inf...
Contaminated surfaces
  • The virus can be detected in aerosols (airborne droplets smaller than five micrometers) for up to three hours.
  • On copper, for up to four hours.
  • On cardboard, for up to 24 hours.
  • On stainless steel or plastic, for up to three days.

The virus particles on any surface decrease rapidly at the start, then slowly approaches zero over time.

Touching or eating contaminated food

If a food worker coughs over your food while preparing it, although really gross, your risk of contracting the disease that way is minimal.

According to a 2018 overview of respiratory viruses, the virus reproduces along the respiratory tract. It is a different pathway than the digestive tract food follows when you swallow it.

Even if you handle contaminated food and then deposit the virus along your respiratory tract, it's highly unlikely to get sick this way.

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A History Of Pandemics
  • A Pandemic is defined as the proliferation of a disease over the whole country or the entire world.
  • Diseases and illnesses have troubled humanity since the earliest days, but ...
Quarantined
  • The original use of the word Quarantine was the act of anchoring a ship arrived in Venice, Italy, for 40 days before landing.
  • Infectiousness of any disease is measured by the reproduction number (R0, or R naught). For example, Smallpox has an R0 of 6 whereas Measles has an R0 of 16. 
  • Vaccination, if available, and herd immunity can curb the spread of disease.
  • Big cities, with exploding population and traffic, can lead to the rapid spread of any infectious disease.