Problem Solving


The main hypothesis of the Fermi Paradox, debated by many Scientists, states that we are the only advanced civilization in our galaxy, because if aliens exist, they would have found our planet by now.

The four arguments against this hypothesis of us being alone in the universe are:

  1. Space travel is difficult or not feasible for aliens..
  2. The alien beings chose not to come to Earth.
  3. The advanced civilizations have yet to find us.
  4. Aliens have already visited our planet but we haven’t seen them.
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Problem Solving


Self-distancing may be beneficial to help in the reflection process.

  • Ask yourself what advice you would give someone else if they were in your situation?
  • Avoid first-person language when considering your performance (Ask yourself, "what could you have done differently?" instead of "what could I have done differently?)
  • Try to visualise the events you were in from the perspective of other people involved.

The common probability distributions are:

  1. Uniform Distribution: It is a simple off or on distribution, where anything outside the given range is 0.
  2. Normal (or Gaussian) Distribution: This distribution has the same standard deviation in all directions. We get to know the average dataset value along with the spread of the data.
  3. Poisson Distribution: This is similar to Poisson Distribution but also has skewness, in which the variation tells about the spread of the data in different directions.

As often heard, the simplest explanations tend to be the most likely, and the more difficult it is for us to imagine an outcome, the less likely it is. Any new information then tends to be processed by the prior judgements and speculations, making our justifications solidify in our minds.

Example: When a couple breaks up, the small problems or quarrels noticed earlier seems to indicate that the breakup was obvious and expected. The same problems were not highlighted by the brain if the couple was together.

Confirmation Bias: Selective Spotlighting That Is Inevitable

Confirmation bias is a common tendency to self-promote and validate our own beliefs. Most controversial issues have people who are for or against the given topic, and tend to look at points that support their existing belief patterns.

Daniel Kahneman, a Nobel prize winning psychologist states that though we can be provided with tools to be aware of the cognitive errors and biases in humans, we are still unable to fix our own.

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