Stage 2


Perspective is everything.
  • The optimist sees the donut, the pessimist sees the hole.
  • There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking make it so.
  • Put things into perspective! The closer you are to the problem and the more in front of it, the less you see. Step back and get a more global view of it.
  • Sometimes while driving we focus so much on the review mirror that we forget to focus on the front windshield. Relate this with your life situation.
KIRAN MAGDUM (@kiranm1347) - Profile Photo



Marc Reklau's wisdom.


The Change Your Habits, Change Your Life Series:

by Marc Reklau

  • Experiences themselves are neutral until we start to give them meaning.
  • What may be a great tragedy to you could be a wake-up call for me to take my life into hands and thrive.
  • This is called "Reframing" to change the perspective that one has of an event.

Take for an example:

  • How do you feel if you say, " I failed terribly in my last relationship?
  • Now try saying, "I learned so much from my last relationship, I'm sure I will not make the same mistakes again!" Can you feel the difference?

"A pessimist is somebody who complains about the noise when opportunity knocks."

What do you believe?
  • Each one of us sees the world through the lenses of their own beliefs.
  • We don't see the world how it is, but how we were conditioned to see it.
  • Beliefs are like a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • Your beliefs influence your emotions, your emotions influence your actions and your actions influence your RESULTS.
  • I want you to realize that life doesn't just happen to you! It's a reflection of your beliefs, thoughts and expectations.

Imagine that there is an outbreak of a deadly disease that will kill 600 people and you must choose between the two options -  

  • Option 1: Guarantees that 200 people will live.
  • Option 2: Provides a one-third probability that all 600 people will live, but it also comes with a 1/3 probability that no one will survive.

You may choose option 1 due to loss aversion. If you think through the choices, you can see that the probabilities of each are identical. This is called the framing effect.

Understanding 2 Systems

System 1 comprises the oldest parts of the brain. It operates automatically and involuntarily. This system is always functioning and is responsible for most of the day-to-day activities. It is also responsible for our reactions to danger, novelty, and intuition.

System 2 allocates attention and completes tasks that require effort. System 2 is a newly evolved part of the brain, and only humans have a highly developed prefrontal cortex.


“Our comforting conviction that the world makes sense rests on a secure foundation: our almost unlimited ability to ignore our ignorance.”

System 1 defaults to choices that maintain the status quo because System 1 psychologically weighs losses twice as much as gains (loss aversion). System 1 is emotionally attached to objects it owns or invests in (the endowment effect) and overvalues the status quo.

You can ask yourself - “What opportunities do I lose by maintaining the status quo?” (or, “If I continue to say yes to this, what am saying no to?”)


“Nothing in life is as important as you think it is, while you are thinking about it”


“Intelligence is not only the ability to reason; it is also the ability to find relevant material in memory and to deploy attention when needed.”

Ask yourself “If I flipped a coin and could lose $100 on tails or win $150 on heads, would you take the bet?” Did you feel a slight hesitation to the gamble? Most people do, even though it’s a reasonable bet to take.

Losses loom larger than gains - relative to a reference point, a loss is more painful than a gain of the same magnitude.

The bias of availability happens when we give too much weight to recent evidence or experience.

If we don’t check for the ‘Availability Bias’ (or what psychologists call the mere‐exposure effect) prior to an important decision, then our preference will be based on environmental conditioning.

So before each decision just ask “Is this the best option or just the option I've been frequently exposed to?”

Daniel Kahneman

“A reliable way to make people believe in falsehoods is frequent repetition because familiarity is not easily distinguished from truth. Authoritarian institutions and marketers have always known this fact.”

Anchoring Effect

Anchors are arbitrary values that we consider for an unknown quantity before encountering that quantity.

Anchors are known to influence many things, including the number of money people are willing to pay for products they have not seen. 

So before choosing the anchors, just research about the thing then decide.

System 1 loves to use limited information to form quick judgments and then block out conflicting information. The author Daniel Kahneman calls it W‐Y‐S‐I‐A‐T‐I (What You See Is All There Is).

Kahneman explains that System 1 sees two or three pieces of information and then “infers and invents causes and intentions then neglects ambiguity and suppresses doubt.”

Just try to ask “Why might the opposite be true?”


“The confidence that individuals have in their beliefs depends mostly on the quality of the story they can tell about what they see, even if they see little.”

Answer To Bat & Ball Problem

In this type of case you just need to use your system 2 and spend some time with it. And you will get the answer as $1.05 for bat and 5 cent for the ball.

Now the ball is $1 more than the bat.

Bat and Ball Problem

Try to solve this problem -

"A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?"
If you say $1 for the bat and 10 cent for the ball, then it's wrong because you just used the system - 1.
(Answer is given in the last idea of the article.)
Confirmation Bias

Within WYSIATI, people will be quick to seize on limited evidence that confirms their existing perspective. And they will ignore or fail to seek evidence that runs contrary to the coherent story they have already created in their mind.

Just ask yourself - "Why do we have certain beliefs or perspectives?"

The 3:1 Rule: Healthy Reward System

• Stack the habits you want to build with leisure activity in a 3:1 ratio.

• Try to have a healthy leisure activity instead on bombarding your brain cells.

• Increase the ratio once the habit becomes part of your integral system.

"Repeat this rule until you get through the plateau of habit formation".

Every Yes Is a No to Something Else
  • Every Yes is a No to something else. It's not that you should say no to everything; it's that you should think it through.
  • uncontrolled, saying yes to requests for time will quickly block out all the other things we value—including the very things that made us successful in the first place.
  • Give yourself permission to say no without guilt. You should not care about what others think of you for declining their requests!
  • Say no to everything that does not support your immediate goals
charles buxton

''You will never find time for anything. If you want time you must make it

Stop Making To-Do Lists Do This Instead


  • To-do lists should be called painful wish lists. A series of tasks you hope to accomplish, without a specific plan. 


  • Schedule a chunk of time for everything that is important to you; this is called “time blocking” or “time boxing.”
  •  Important items should be scheduled as early in the day as possible
  • Third, don’t cancel goals; reschedule them if necessary.
  • Treat your time-blocked calendar entries as if they were appointments with your doctor; they are that important.

''Nothing is a waste of time if you use the experience wisely"

The E-3C System

E-(Energy)=You can’t make more time, but you can increase your productivity, by getting enough sleep, eating healthy, and doing meditation

C-(CAPTURE)=You must “capture” everything and anything into a notebook instead of trying to keep things in your head.

C-(CALENDAR)-What is implied with this step is don’t use a to-do list! If you want “to do” something, immediately schedule it on your calendar.

C-(Concentrate)- Don’t multitask, concentrate on one task at a time.

peter turla

''It's better to do the right thing slowly than the wrong thing quickly''

Food as another example

When you're in the moment of whether or not to eat the whole package of cookies, you need to shift your focus and focus on the pain (where will you be in 6 months if you continue to overeat?)

If you want to change your behavior, change what you link pain and pleasure to

Step 1: Get yourself to feel a certain way and feel it strongly

Step 2: While you're feeling it.. link it to something else

The pain and pleasure principle

(n.) Everything we do in life is driven by the need to avoid pain or the desire to gain pleasure.

"Humans will often do more to avoid pain than to gain pleasure"


Example: School project. 

1. Humans will often do more to avoid pain than to avoid pleasure

2. Whatever you focus on becomes your reality

Ask yourself what will be the pain if you don't start this project now. Focus and visualize this picture in your head.

Start by taking baby steps but just start.


Everything that has value in life comes from consistency: success, wealth, relationships, health etc.

Consistency doesn't mean perfection. it is winning majority of the time.

For the times you fall, learn to get back on track and get used to it. 

Learn to use pain and pleasure instead of having pain and pleasure use you.

Visualization is a powerful cheat code to success

The brain doesn't know the difference between imagination and reality.

When you're visualizing something you're actually building neural networks as if that experience had already occured.

Example: Linking running (Pain) to pleasure (Song)

You feel sad so you go running while you listen a song. (Step 1: Felt sense of relief strongly)

"What gets fired together gets wired together"

When you take something challenging and make it an enjoyable experience this massively increases your chances to do it again in the future. That's because now your brain wants to do it. 

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