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Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing.
The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual.
In essence, the motivation of the behavior selection is determined by the desirability of the outcome.
It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices.
Intellectual Yet Idiot: semi-erudite who thinks he is an erudite; pathologies others for doing things he doesn't understand not realising it is his understanding that may be limited. A theoretician who despises practitioners. In the words ofNassim Taleb:
More socially: subscribes to the New Yorker; never curses on twitter; speaks of "equality of races" and "economic equality" but never went out drinking with a minority cab driver; has considered voting for Tony Blair; has attended more than 1 TEDx talks and watched more than 2 TED talks; will vote for Hillary Monsanto-Malmaison because she seems electable; has The Black Swan on his shelves but mistakes absence of evidence for evidence of absence; is member of a club to get traveling privileges; if social scientist uses statistics without knowing how they are derived; when in the UK goes to literary festivals; drinks red wine with steak (never white); used to believe that fat was harmful and has now completely reversed; takes statins because his doctor told him so; fails to understand ergodicity and when explained forgets about it soon later; doesn't use Yiddish words; studies grammar before speaking a language; has a cousin who worked with someone who knows the Queen; has never read Frederic Dard, Michael Oakeshot, John Gray, or Joseph De Maistre; has never gotten drunk with Russians and went breaking glasses; doesn't know the difference between Hecate and Hecuba; doesn't know that there is no difference between "pseudointellectual" and "intellectual"; has mentioned quantum mechanics at least twice in the past 5 years; knows at any point in time what his words or actions are doing to his reputation.
But a much easier marker: doesn't deadlift.
Funny story:At a restaurant award ceremony many of the restaurants who won the awards were bankrupt by the time of the gala. The market does not care about your award.
It is facing a concept that captures something we cannot fathom, an exotic emotion we cannot grasp, a certain idea that arouses in others fervor and enthusiasm but strikes us as nothing but foreign and bizarre, a certain principle that must, against our own reason, be unreasonable.
There are two main kinds of memories:
The sunk cost effect is the general tendency for people to continue an endeavor, or continue consuming or pursuing an option, if they’ve invested time or money or some resource in it.That effect becomes a fallacy if it’s pushing you to do things that are making you unhappy or worse off.
If you’ve ever let unworn clothes clutter your closet just because they were expensive, or followed through on plans you were dreading because you already bought tickets, you’re familiar with the sunk cost fallacy.
Effective (adj.) – Adequate to accomplish a purpose; producing the intended or expected result.
Efficient (adj.) – Performing or functioning in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort.
Being effective is about doing the right things, while being efficient is about doing things right.
Working without feedback is a major risk. It is probably the biggest risk you can take.
This is an exercise in metacognition — monitoring the ways that you think.
The basic question is: When I search for this note in the future, what key words will I use?Put those words in the title of the note.
Sleep (unlike hibernation or coma), exists in creatures without brains at all- Jellyfish sleep and one-celled organisms such as plankton and yeast display clear cycles of activity and rest.
This implies that sleep is ancient and that its original and universal function is not about organizing memories or promoting learning but more about the preservation of life itself.It’s evidently natural law that a creature, no matter the size, cannot go full throttle 24 hours a day.
Research suggests that sleeping soon after a major event, before some of the ordeal is mentally resolved, is more likely to turn the experience into long-term memories.
To forestall post-traumatic stress disorder, the soldiers should remain awake for six to eight hours.
We avoid startingby requiring the fanciest tools. Running a marathon? Buys the most expensive shoes. Want to write more?Gets notebooks and pens shipped from Japan.
The need for tools is part of the Resistance. In fact, creativity usually benefits from the constraints of having inferior tools.
Although the insights we can have in meditation tell us nothing about the origins of the universe, they do confirm some well-established truths about the human mind: Our conventional sense of self is an illusion; positive emotions, such as compassion and patience, are teachable skills; and the way we think directly influences our experience of the world. - Sam Harris
The problem with introspection isn’t that it’s categorically ineffective, but that we don’t always do it right. When we examine the causes of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors — which we often do by asking ourselves Why? questions — we tend to search for the easiest and most plausible answers. Generally, once we’ve found one or two, we stop looking. This can be the result of our innate confirmation bias, which prompts us to lean towards reasons that confirm our existing beliefs.
Honesty” often implies truth-telling and little more, but “integrity” implies wholeness, soundness, a complex philosophy of life.
To have integrity is to stand by your word, to have a sense of honor, to do what you have agreed to do and to do it as best as you can.To have integrity is to be satisfied with nothing less than the best job you can do. - Isaac Asimov
Those power relationships can function to pull people together, but they also can pull them apart because they are the product of differential access to resources. And differences in power influence how we respond to and think about values espoused as being shared by members of a group.
1.Artifacts: Artifacts are things you can see, touch, smell. Ping pong tables, happy hours, and free lunches. It’s also the office layout, the logo rebranding you just did, and your company holiday party. This is typically what we think of when it comes to company culture.
2. Espoused values and beliefs: These are the things you think you believe and say you believe. It’s the mission statement you wrote together as a company, the code of conduct that’s in your employee handbook, or the six core company values your CEO talks about during your all-staff meeting.
3. Basic underlying assumptions:The final, core layer of culture. Basic underlying assumptions are the things you actually believe. Basic underlying assumption steer our decision-making. Our basic underlying assumptions are the foundation of culture. If we can influence our basic underlying assumptions, we can influence culture.
What happens to cities or companies if their sizes are doubled? Asking question like that has had remarkably profound consequences across the spectrum of science, engineering, and technology and has impacted almost every aspect of our lives, even including how we perceive our place in the universe.
In a more practical context, scaling plays a critical role in the design of increasingly large human engineered artifacts, such as buildings, bridges, ships, airplanes, and computers, where extrapolating from the small to the large in an efficient, cost-effective fashion is a continuing challenge.
The best predictors of job satisfaction are features of the job itself, rather than matters of pre-existing passion.
Engaging work can be broken down into five factors:
1. There’s Not One “Right” Model Of Corporate Culture;
2. What You Measure, You Can Manage;
3. Organizations Don’t Change; People Do;
4. Start At The Top And The Bottom;
5. Dialogue Is Key;
6. Transformation Takes Time.
1. The Blueprint Of We: is a collaboration document and ongoing process used to mindfully custom design business and personal relationships. You personally write the document along with those involved, whether two people or 20,000+. It captures what draws each individual to the situation, enables you to let others know how you work best, helps you mindfully design the framework of the collaboration, and provides a path back to peace when the need arises. As an ongoing collaborative process, it wires your brain for more connection and compassion and enables groups of all sizes to continually find clarity. It is often being used to replace or enhance traditional legal contracts.
2. MurderBoarding: provides a framework for a group to arrive at a shared decision around one direction. While many resources offer frameworks for brainstorming, divergence of thinking, and effectively whiteboarding, this is a framework and a method to make decision-making, and tough choices with a team, so that convergence happens.
3. The Cultural Transformation Tools (CTT): are comprehensive cultural diagnostics and values assessment instruments designed to support leaders in building high-performance, values-driven cultures that attract and keep talented people and collective performance. Giving all voices at the table a chance to be heard, and determining the best ways to work with one another, are critical to team success. It can be easy to assume that the dynamics will work themselves out in the process of working together, but without clear intention, it often leads to missed opportunities, unnecessary misunderstandings, and silent grudges.
People that are studying what makes things funny have come up with some interesting theories:
1. The Superiority Theory: This theory suggest that our humor is derived from the misfortune of others, which makes us feel superior. That certainly explains why a lot of us find it funny when people fall down. Ha! Those inferior people can't even walk properly. That's funny.
2. The Relief Theory: It essentially says that the perception of humor is directly related to the release of built up tension. In other words, we are set up through tension to get to a release point of humor.That release has been shown to actually be good for our health.
3. The Incongruity Theory:This is all about the unexpected. We find humor when something happens that doesn't fit with what we expected to happen.
4. The Kick of the Discovery Theory: This theory is based on some significant research and analysis where over a million people were asked to rank over a thousand jokes.It concludes that humor works by leading us one way and then suddenly shifting our perceptions.
5. The Benign Violations Theory: Lastly, this theory is apparently an attempt by recent researchers to try to find a "unifying theory" of humor. It says that humor comes from a few necessary conditions: First, there needs to be a norm violation. It could be a moral norm, a social norm, or a physical norm. Then there needs to be a safe context where the violation takes place. That gives us permission to laugh at an otherwise not so funny physical violation, for example. No one was hurt in the filming of this joke. Go ahead and laugh your head off.There you go. Now all you need to do is put it all together:
Find a way to show the misfortune of others while concurrently building up the tension of that misfortune. Do it in an unexpected way while violating some sort of norm but in safe place while also leading your audience one way before pulling a 180.
The creative process is the act of making new connections between old ideas. Thus, we can say creative thinking is the task of recognizing relationships between concepts. One way to approach creative challenges is by following the five-step process of:
1. Gather new material. At first, you learn. During this stage you focus on 1) learning specific material directly related to your task and 2) learning general material by becoming fascinated with a wide range of concepts.
2. Thoroughly work over the materials in your mind. During this stage, you examine what you have learned by looking at the facts from different angles and experimenting with fitting various ideas together.
3. Step away from the problem. Next, you put the problem completely out of your mind and go do something else that excites you and energizes you.
4. Let your idea return to you. At some point, but only after you have stopped thinking about it, your idea will come back to you with a flash of insight and renewed energy.
5. Shape and develop your idea based on feedback. For any idea to succeed, you must release it out into the world, submit it to criticism, and adapt it as needed.
[James Webb Young]
1.Don’t make assumptions- Before you confront someone about an issue, make sure you have all the facts.
2. Make sure your conversation serves a purpose - Whether you’re hoping to solve a conflict or discuss future plans with someone, you should have a tangible goal in mind.
3. Plan out what you’re going to say- When it comes to being direct with someone, wording is everything and bit of consideration goes a long way.
4. Address the phenomenon, not the person - Make it clear you're concerned about the effect and how you can correct it, not criticizing the person.
5. Aim for a positive outcome -Proposing potential solutions is a great way to maintain a constructive mindset; so is actively listening to the other person’s response and compromising where it’s appropriate.
Management in the 20th century was, in large part, the art of strategic planning. You gathered information about markets, competitors, and other trends and then planned accordingly. Yet today, technology cycles move faster than planning cycles ever could, so we need to take different approach to strategy. Instead of trying to get every move right -which is impossible in today's environment - we need to try to become less wrong over time. Essentially, we need to treat strategy like a role playing game, taking quests that earn us experience and artifacts along the way.That means that we will need to plan differently. In addition to strategic planning, or planning based on things we know or think we know, we need to start innovation planning, or planning based on things we need to learn to solve new and important problems. That's how you quest. You don't plan the journey as much as you prepare for it.
A person who indulges in and desires information gathering and interpretation.
People who are addicted to information. Knowledge hoarders. The term is usually derogatory as information is rarely put into practice.
•Emphasizing Perfection vs. Improvement: Most people are so focused on achieving perfection that they lose sight of improvement. When a person or team emphasizes improvement over perfection, progress accelerates.
• Emphasizing Results Over Process: Normal people define success with results. Highly successful people have learned to define success with effort and process. The great Coach Wooden said, "true success is defined with effort, not results."
• Emphasizing Negative Instead of Positive: It's totally normal to want to evaluate what went wrong. But stay focused on what you are doing well, rather than where you are falling short. A focus on the negative will lead to more negative and more under performing. A focus on the positive will promote more positive behavior.
Don't expect much from a drowning man. He's not going to offer you a candy bar or ask how your day was. He's too busy not drowning.
Generosity takes effort. It requires the space to take your mind off your own problems long enough to see someone else's. It requires the confidence to share when a big part of you wants to hoard.
And it requires the emotional labor of empathy.
Generosity begins by trusting ourselves enough to know that we're not actually drowning.
Wanna convince? Don’t think like a salesperson. Don't jump at any chance to pitch your product or service.
Instead, adopt a doctor’s mindset. I’ve never met a doctor who used a pitch like,“We have this incredible new procedure that I just can’t wait to tell you about! It’s going to change everything!”
Rather, good doctors ask questions to make sure they truly understand your pain before making a diagnosis.
Culture and leadership closely, we see that they are two sides of the same coin; neither can really be understood by itself. Cultural norms define how a given nation or organizations will define leadership—who will get promoted, who will get the attention of followers.Tt can be argued that the only thing of real importance that leaders do is to create and manage culture; that the unique talent of leaders is their ability to understand and work with culture; and that it is an ultimate act of leadership to destroy culture when it is viewed as dysfunctional.
At the core of the concept of Radical Candor is the idea that the humans you work with and for are uniquely equipped to give you feedback. These are the humans that day in and day out are watching how you treat others, how many you make decisions, and how the results of those decisions play out.
Not only do these humans have a wealth of useful feedback, but they are also distinctly not you. They are each shaped by a different set of experiences that subtly shape their feedback with a healthy bias. Whether this bias increases or decreases the quality of the feedback is a moot point if they never effectively give it to you.
Gen. Stanley McChrystal has said that it is key once you develop a strategic plan to bring in people who are not wedded to it, the outsiders who have no interest in it. They are, as the military term goes, a red team whose job is simple:to find holes and problems in your plan.
As a strategist, you can’t have your ego involved—you should be grateful when people expose flaws in your approach. It is why companies need to appoint a Chief Dissent Officer—someone who can ruthlessly kill bad ideas in the making.
If you become too myopic and focused in your scope of work you might lose contact with the bigger picture. It is why Viktor Frankl, author of Man’s Search for Meaning, has put it this way:“I would define a specialist as a man who no longer sees the forest of truth for the trees of facts.”
- Nurtures A Learning Culture;
- Identifies And Fills Knowledge Gaps;
- Generates Creative And Innovative Ideas;
- Enables Better Decision Making;
- Boosts Efficiency And Competence;
- Constructs A Supportive Corporate Community;
- Provides Employees With An Internal Knowledge Base;
- Reduces The Loss Of Know-How;
- Cuts Down Costs And Time;
The primary job of an advertiser is not to communicate benefit, but to communicate conviction.
Benefit is secondary. Benefit is a product of conviction, not vice versa.
Why is your brand great? Why does your brand matter?
Seriously. If you don’t know, then nobody else can- no advertiser, no buyer, and certainly no customer.
It’s not about merit. It’s about faith. Belief. Conviction. Courage.
It’s about why you’re on this planet. To make a dent in the universe.
— F. Scott Fitzgerald
The core difference between efficiency and relational thinking is people. In the context of efficiency thinking, other people are a means to an end. In the context of relational thinking; people are the means and the end. This simple distinction has wide-ranging implications.
Efficiency thinking asks, “What are my goals and how can I most rapidly achieve them with the greatest odds of success?” Relational thinking asks, “How can I constantly surround myself with most amazing people and build deep relationships with them?"
Ideas = intersections between ourselves and something else, whether that’s a book, a conversation with a friend, or the subtle suggestion of a tree. Ideas can literally arise out of clouds (if we are looking at them).
"Why is it that when we sit down and try to force an idea, nothing comes—or, if we succeed in forcing it, it feels stale and contrived? Why do the best ideas appear uninvited and at the strangest times, darting out at us like an impish squirrel from a shrub?"
The ratio of time you spend sweating to watching others sweat is a forward-looking indicator of your success.
Show me a guy who watches ESPN every night, spends all day Sunday watching football, and doesn’t work out, and I’ll show you a future of anger and failed relationships.
Obtaining a new possession often creates a spiral of consumption which leads you to acquire more new things. As a result, we end up buying things that our previous selves never needed to feel happy or fulfilled.
Named after the famous French philosopher Denis Diderot: living in poverty until 52, he purchased a scarlet robe after selling his library for a small fortune. He noticed how he urged to replace a lot of items to mach his fancy new possession.