Self Improvement


Understanding light through the particle and wave theory

Light does not appear to bend. Sound can go through crooked pipes, but light is not known to follow crooked bends. However, when light passes through water, the angels of incidence and refraction differ.

  • Newton proposed that light's velocity in water was faster than in air. Once they enter water, the corpuscles were acted upon by a force that increased their velocity and changed the direction of the light. But Newton was not convincing as he could not explain the nature of this force.
  • Huygens assumed light travelled slower in water and used his undulatory theory in a simple way.
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Self Improvement


  • It is often found that practising hinders progress and that real, authentic and individualistic mastery emerges when one gives up formal practising and gets completely natural and experimental.
  • The 10,000 hours of practice formula, popularized by Malcolm Gladwell in his book The Outliers, has the stamp of ambition and goal-seeking.
  • Our inner amateur turns the teaching upside down, and instead of ambition, injects fearlessness, spontaneity, aliveness and commitment to the activity.

The feeling of awe or extreme wonder changes our mental models, as we are dumbstruck with the new mind-bending information. It can be accompanied by fear, anxiety and delight.

The person experiencing this feeling often has a memorable, beautiful adventure or encounter, that can alter belief patterns and assumptions.

After you've calmed your body, focus on your automatic negative thoughts. You may fall into unhelpful or wrong thinking like catastrophizing - where you imagine the worst-case scenario - or jumping to conclusions where you convince yourself that you know what other people are thinking.

To counter cognitive distortions, simply look at your fingers and consider five alternative explanations for why your boss may be calling the meeting.

The story of a race of warrior women first appeared in Greek mythology, but excavations across the north and east of the Black Sea region revealed that worrier women like the Amazons really existed.

  • In December 2019, the graves of four female warriors from the 4th Century BC Sarmatian region were found in the village of Devitsa - now Western Russia.
  • Excavations within the modern borders of Iran have revealed the existence of female warriors.
  • Experts have identified depictions of women in battle with Greek men on vases and other ceramics.
  • By the 470s, the Greeks began to refer to representations of the Persians as the Amazons.

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