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102 STASHED IDEAS

The Napoleonic Code

The 1804 Napoleonic Code influenced civil law codes across the globe. It was very influential in developing countries outside Europe, especially in the Middle East.

  • It replaced the fragmented laws of pre-revolutionary France.
  • It recognised the principles of civil liberty, equality before the law for men (not for women in the same sense), and the state's secular character.
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Before the Napoleonic Code, France did not have any set of laws. Instead, law consisted of local customs. Napoleon wanted to reform the French legal system in keeping with the French Revolution. 



During the Revolution, the last traces of feudalism were abolished. A new legal code was needed to address the changes in the French's social, economic, and political structure. The code was published in 1804 and named the Civil Code of the French but later renamed the Napoleonic Code.

  • The development of the code fundamentally changed the nature of the civil law legal system. It stressed clearly written and accessibly law.
  • The laws could be applied only if they had been promulgated and then published officially. No secret laws were authorised.
  • It prohibited laws that apply to events that happened before their introduction.
  • The codes also prevented judges from refusing justice based on insufficiency of the law, meaning they had to interpret the law.
  • It forbid judges from passing general judgments of a legislative value.

The Code was adopted in many countries occupied by the French during the Napoleonic Wars and became the foundation of the law systems of Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Portugal and their former colonies, and Poland.


Romania also used a civic code with strong Napoleonic influences until 2011. Thus, the civil law systems of the countries of modern continental Europe have been influenced by the Napoleonic Code (except for Russia and the Scandinavian countries).

  1. Sigmund Freud believed dreams are our latent desires and repressed wishes, which are sometimes symbolic.
  2. Some scientists believe dreams help us consolidate our memory and are a sort of brain housekeeping.
  3. Some believe dreams are ancient biological radars, helping us to practice upcoming threats.
  4. Dreams may help us make new connections by joining together random strings of memories.
  5. Dreams are also seen as a way to build empathy between people by sharing stories.
  6. Dreams may be a way to help us regulate our emotions.

Dreams add some chaos to our mundane life, a form of random noise that contrasts with routine life in the daytime.

By creating a Bizarro version of the world around us, dreams help us gain a well-rounded and less simplistic understanding of it.

Dreams: A Dose Of Weirdness

We all have had weird dreams with laughable and bizarre scenarios that defy any kind of logic.

According to a new hypothesis, the random weirdness in dreams is there for a reason: to help us handle the unexpected in a better way, as life is unpredictable and always in flux.

Social scientists found that we're not very good at predicting what will and will not make us happy. We think more stuff will make us happy, but research shows that experiences bring the greatest pleasure.

We assume the perfect journey will make us happy, but unexpected twists make the trip memorable.

Bad events make deeper impressions than good ones. Over time, we forget the bad stuff in it and remember the good - known as the "fading affect bias." Researchers show that we will remember the positive ones with heightened emotions in them.

When we retell a tale, our minds revise it. With each retelling, it gets bigger. You don't just say the fish you caught was the size of a small car, you believe it because you remember it that way.

Good trips come and go. Bad trips are remembered.

A journey is more memorable if it doesn't go according to plan. Some trips only have a few unplanned events, such as a missed connection or a rained-out parade.

Other trips turn into adventure literature, such as the 1910 Terra Nova expedition to Antarctica, "The Worst Journey in the World."

We travel to stretch our abilities, to test ourselves. Bad trips help us to become the hero of the journey.

The steps in a hero story are always the same. The hero starts a journey, is tested, passes the test, and finally returns home transformed.

Eckhart Tolle

“Whatever the present moment contains, accept it as if you had chosen it."

  • We feel angry, frustrated or sad with our friends, loved ones and family members because they don’t live up to our expectations.
  • If we don’t have any expectations in the first place, we would not judge them accordingly, and their actions or non-actions will not cause emotional reactions inside us.
  • If we travel somewhere with great expectations, we are bound to be disappointed. If we just go somewhere without any expectations, we may be delighted and would enjoy whatever experience comes forth.
  1. Become more aware during the day, noticing more things around you.
  2. Every time a judgement or expectation is made, just note down the moment and repeat this: No expectations, no good or bad.
  3. Be curious as to why people behave or act in a certain way, removing your coloured glasses behind.
  4. Take whatever comes in your life and experience it. You can only control your responses.
  5. Accept circumstances and people as they are.
  6. Understand that the present moment is a gift, containing infinite possibilities.

A mindset hack is to expect nothing, and don’t think of anything that is happening as good or bad. Accept things as they happen, as if that is what was planned, letting you move in the particular landscape in a mindful way.

This simple hack makes us less unhappy and less disappointed all the time.

We need to stop judging and expecting because it stops our factual understanding. We have already come to a conclusion, our preferred way of something to be, and reality is bound to be different.

Expecting and judging will make us unhappy as reality is never what we expect it to be. We need to stop killing our happiness and start to live our lives instead.

Imagine a good thing that happened to you recently and a bad thing. Just imagine those recent incidents as just events, not good or bad in any way. When we stop judging, we are not burdened with emotions, and not chained to the world. Nothing is really good or bad, but in reality, is just our interpretation and perception.

Even big events are events that just happened. Festivals and wars keep happening. Death is always happening everywhere, let it be.

  • Like a pot boiling on a stove, the driving force behind plate tectonics is the convection in the mantle where the hot material near the Earth's core rises while the colder materials sink.
  • The geologists see it differently though. They believe it's more of a "repeated collision" and call it plate boundaries. The three types of plate boundaries are: Convergent, Divergent, Transform.
  • These tectonic plates move at a rate of 1-2 inches per year.
Facts About Plate Tectonics
  • The theory that states that the Earth's "outer shell" is split into huge slabs of rock we call "plates," glide over the Earth's mantle is known as the Plate Tectonics
  • Alfred Wegener proposed this theory back in 1915 when it was still named the continental drift
  • Before plate tectonics, the continental drift theory was used to explain the geologic features of a region, which eventually became the unifying theory of geology.

There are seven major plates that currently exist:

  1. North American
  2. Pacific
  3. Eurasian
  4. African
  5. Indo-Australian
  6. South American
  7. Antarctic

Although, evidence has been found that the Indo-Australian plate has cracked therefore making the total existing plates to 8.

The earliest evidence of the tectonic plates was found in Greenland which was estimated to be abbout 3.8 billion years old. Covnersely, researchers have found that the tectonic plates have been active for as long as 4 billion years ago.

There have been two supercontinents: The Rodinia which happened a billion years ago while the most recent one The Pangea formed about 300 million years ago.

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