Our Experience Of Time During Dreams

Dreams occur in the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) stage of sleep. We tend to remember the dreams that are seen just prior to waking up, but often the experience of time during our dream and awake stages is skewed.
Swedish and German scientists studied Lucid Dreamers(People who are aware while dreaming and are able to control the dream) and found out that there is a negligible time difference in non-physical tasks done in the dream stage vs in reality.

Physical tasks, like running, took longer in dreams than in reality.




The Progressors of DNA
  • Friedrich Meischer - originally discovered nucleic acids in 1868
  • Oswald Avery and his colleagues - proved that DNA contained information by experimenting with bacteria in 1943
  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase - supported the information role of DNA through experimentation with viruses
  • James D. Watson and Francis Crick - discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 that made them receive a Nobel Prize
  • The DNA is a long molecule that is about a millimeter long.
  • While humans have 46 chromosomes, plants and animals are complex organisms which can contain 50 to 100 thousand genes on many different chromosomes.
  • The DNA of such organisms are twisted around bead-shaped proteins called histones. They are coiled tightly to form chromosomes that are located in the nucleus of the cell.
  • Every time a cell reproduces the DNA gets copied and distributed to each offspring.
DNA Replication Process
  • For the replication process to occur, it is highly dependent on whether the cells are prokaryotic or if it's a eukaryote. Regardless of where it happens, the DNA replication process is the same.
  • The DNA is shaped like a double helix that runs in opposite directions in which is able to unzip down the middles so that it may serve as a template for the other side.
  • The small area where it can unzip is called a replication fork, where it moves down the entire length of the molecule.
  • The DNA carries the instructions on making protein, which is basically the determinant for our physical characteristics.
  • A protein is basically made up of a lot of amino acids and it has many functions from aiding digestion to making antibodies for the immune system.
  • Protein usually differs from one another, and the particular sequence causes the chain of the amino acids together, this then is encoded in the DNA.
  • The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a pattern made up of four different parts called nucleotides.
  • Each nucleotide consists of a sugar (deoxyribose) bound on one side to a phosphate group and bound on the other side to a nitrogenous base.
  • There are two classes of nitrogen bases called purines (double-ringed structures) and pyrimidines (single-ringed structures).
  • The DNA has four bases: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.
  • The DNA is often visualized like a spiral staircase -- the double helix.
Building A Protein

If we equate DNA as the master blueprint, we could then say that a protein is the house. There are many involved in this process such as the messenger RNA which is the working copy of the DNA, the cytoplasm, amino acids, ribosomes, and the transfer RNA molecules.

Basically speaking, proteins are made inside cells. The instructions of how to make proteins are held inside the DNA molecules and the two major stages in making a protein are called transcription and translation.

Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

The two major stages in making a protein: transcription and translation.

When a cell makes a copy of the DNA, it's then called the RNA since it uses a different type of nucleic acid which is ribonucleic acid. The RNA is used in translation where it's converted (translated) into a sequence of amino acids that make up the protein.

Benefits of baking

Research shows there may be beneficial effects to baking, like less stress, emotion management and social connection.

Spending time in the kitchen is a kind of self-care that's desperately needed during the long months of isolation.

Many of us instinctively know that a few hours in the kitchen gathering and chopping ingredients and getting creative can make us feel better.

Accomplishing small, creative tasks can make us feel happier. One study found that participants reported more positive emotions when they took on creative pursuits.

Getting your hands dirty

The simple mechanics of cooking can make the activity appealing and stimulate crucial brain centres. Researchers found that repetitive behaviours like chopping or kneading can decrease stress and anxiety.

Cooking on your own can increase the feeling of social interaction, partly from the people you're feeding. Altruism and positive behaviours like being kind can contribute to our wellbeing.

Cooking is soothing and empowering as you can be present in the moment. There is routine and a quietness about reading a recipe, and putting together a dish while you use your senses, smelling the aromas coming together.

With baking, you can do something that makes you have more control. You can read something, and in 30 minutes, you'll end up with a product that feels wonderfully satisfying.

We May Not Be Exercising Enough

The World Health Organization recommends 150 to 300 minutes of moderate to heavy exercise per week, which many of us are not doing as we overestimate our activity levels.

A vigorous exercise, where our heart rate reserve is more than 60 percent cannot be the same for every person, as one first needs to calculate their resting heart rate as well as the estimated maximum heart rate.

  • A healthy resting heart rate is usually in the range of 60 to 100 beats per minute (bpm) for an average adult.a
  • The estimated maximum heart rate can be calculated by subtracting your age from the number 220. So if you are 4o years old right now, your maximum heart rate would be 180.
  • Once the two figures are calculated, one can derive the bpm that one needs to maintain while exercising at moderate intensity. This can be done by subtracting the resting heart rate from the maximum heart rate, and then adding the desired heart rate reserve to your resting heart rate. This figure is usually above 40 percent of one’s heart rate reserve.

If the heart rate calculation sounds complicated, one can try a simple tracking method: The number of steps we take per minute.

To attain an intensive workout level, one has to keep the steps per minute above 100. This means that an average of 30 minutes activity per day is only effective if one does brisk walking or running without a break. Idle strolling won’t keep the steps per minute above 100.

Neurotic In A Good Way

Various new studies outline the benefits of being borderline neurotic, where the worry is coupled with motivation to be disciplined and organized, and taking extra self-care.

Neurotic people have anxiety issues, Obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) and take too much stress. While they tend to be amusing characters in a Sitcom (think Monica from Friends), the personality trait of constant stress and worry in a neurotic person would result in health issues.

Inflammation in a natural process in our body’s defence mechanism and helps repair tissues and kill bacteria.

Smoking, drinking, inactivity and overeating can cause long-term (chronic) inflammation in the body, which results in tissue damage, leading to many lifestyle diseases like diabetes and even cancer.

A study shows that healthy neurotics who are also disciplined and organized have reduced levels of inflammation.

They also tend to stick to regimes and plans for improving their health, like doing regular exercise and not indulging in drinking or smoking often.

  • The bumper crop of stress and anxiety in 2020 seems to be handled well by many neurotic personalities according to new research.
  • As many people felt powerless and confused during the lockdown months, people with neurotic behaviour were controlled, vigilant, and coped up better than the laid back personalities.
  • Though there is no evidence on (healthy) neurotics living longer lives, those who are disciplined and organized do benefit from their healthy habits.

© Brainstash, Inc

AboutCuratorsJobsPress KitTopicsTerms of ServicePrivacy PolicySitemap