Intelligence is likely associated with a better generalised working memory.
A working memory is the ability to hold multiple ideas in your head at the same time. Those who are smarter have a bigger capacity to hold multiple ideas.
Intelligence is partly heritable, but there are ways to improve it in a general capacity. The best way to improve your working memory is to simply learn a lot. Learning creates chunks, which allows you to deal with more complex ideas.
The downside of learning is that it tends to be narrow, while intelligence is general.
Some subjects feel like they require more intelligence. If understanding an idea requires you to take different ideas into account, it may be more challenging to keep track with a lower working memory. e.g. mathematical proofs.
Conversely, if a subject requires a large volume of memory, but each fact or idea is separate, it may require lots of practice and less working memory. E.g. history or law.
Because we can increase our working memory within a subject, we can create new chunks and master very complicated ideas. The perceived difficulty is often the way subjects are taught. Only the smarter students will remain, the higher you go in maths or science. This leads teachers to skip over "trivial" steps, leading you feeling like you can't master it.
Solutions are for teachers to slow down the class or for the student to slow down the class using, for example, the Feynman Technique.
Any subject can be learned with some practice and patience. Some subjects may appear harder because of the speed at which they are taught.
To fix this problem, you may need to put in more work. If you can't see everything at once, it just means you need to practice more of the pieces, so your mind does not have to juggle so many ideas simultaneously.
Self-sabotage involves behaviors or thoughts that keep you away from what you desire most in life. It’s that internal sentiment gnawing at us, saying “you can’t do this.”
Self-destructive behaviors can become habits and can continually undermine your success and happiness.
Self-sabotage is when we want something, but somehow we never accomplish it, because somewhere deep in our subconscious we’re fighting against that goal:
Self-destructive habits are often rooted in our feelings of self-worth.
Work on identifying and acknowledging what is causing you to sabotage yourself, and then start making changes to stop those behaviors.
The most successful people are those who take the time to think through their choices, decisions and actions.
Successful people learn from what worked or failed to work. They then adjust their course of action by taking a different approach.
Put aside those harsh inner voices of "I can’t" or "I’m a failure."
That negative internal dialogue is a pattern of self-limiting thoughts. Start replacing that critical inner voice with positive, encouraging thoughts.
In every moment, we’re taking action that either moves us toward or away from the person we want to be and the life we want to have.
Consider how the actions you’re taking and the thoughts you’re thinking conflict with your happiness and hold you back from your true potential. Then look for ways to replace old patterns with new ones that are more helpful in achieving your goals.
If you’re disorganized or constantly getting off track from what you should be doing, take five minutes every morning to tidy your desk and write a to-do list.
Learning new skills increases your motivation, makes you more adaptable, relatable, interesting and helps you get better jobs and earn more money.
And today, learning anything new isn’t as hard as it used to be. Start by understanding how your brain truly works.
Like any skill, you learn by doing. And make a commitment to write publicly.
You learn better when people can actually see your work. It forces you to do your very best. It gives you accountability. You get feedback from others and improved based on it.
Nothing builds confidence more than doing a successful public speech. So seek opportunities to speak in front of groups.
First, learn how habits form and how they work, to better control what habits you set up and get rid of habits that are detrimental to you.
The best way to keep your habits in check is to be accountable for your good or bad habits. Find one or multiple people that you report to on a regular basis.
By practicing this skill:
It helps you to think more logically (it will increase your analytical and reasoning skills) and make better-informed decisions. And you'll be more productive simply by knowing how to better analyze your time.
Practice sample problems, without the pressure you probably felt in school, and with the awareness of the real-life benefits of doing it.
Having coordination and flexibility is one of the most important parts of living a healthy life.
And without being healthy, it’s hard to even think about developing any other skill.
Start with guided meditations. They teach you that it’s okay to have thoughts and guide you through clarity of mind.
Commit to it. Don’t try once and leave. The more hours of practice you put it, the easier it gets. You'll have more clarity on your emotions, body, and mind, and you'll make better decisions.
Note-taking will always be at the core of learning and education. We are often encouraged to take notes during lectures to have a record of the knowledge being shared by our teachers and gain a sense of familiarity with the subject.
There are many note-taking systems such as outlining, guided notes, and the famous Cornell notes. However, they do not result well when being recalled. No studies suggest that Cornell note-taking improves a student's performance better than free-flow writing.
The biggest difference between the two is that the former is easier to forget than the latter.
With note-making, it is easier to understand and remember because of the generation effect - the phenomenon wherein information is better remembered if it is actively created from your own mind rather than simple read in a passive way.
To make good notes, you must take note of these three things:
In summary, actively engage with your notes. There are great methods such as mind mapping, digital gardening, and the Zettelkasten method.
People can fool themselves into believing they understand something more deeply than they really do. It often comes from being focused on learning the wrong thing, such as the name of something instead of what it really is.
We have to learn when we know, when we don't know, what it is we know, and what it is we don't know.
To make good decisions, we generally need to do the following:
There are a few personality traits that are found in indecisive individuals:
When making decisions, using your intuition is not essentially good or bad; this depends on multiple factors, such as the circumstances at hand and the way you use your intuition.
While you should be willing to use your intuition where necessary, you should assess the situation first, and make sure that using intuition is the best option for you, and that when you do use it, you do so in a proper manner.
Our emotions can makes us act in an irrational way and make bad decisions. But don't ignore your emotions entirely; they are not necessarily the cause of our bad decisions.
You should take your emotions into account in a rational way, without giving them the power to prevent you from conducting a proper decision-making process.
Many people in their thirties and forties go back to a college to learn something that may be helpful in their ongoing career.
The time when they had earlier attended college, they were in their teens or twenties, not being exposed to the real world. When going back to college as a professional, a few mistakes can be avoided.
Most of us believe that lecture time is learning time, but the fact is that they are only effective when one is already familiar with the material being taught.
Introduction of new concepts during a one hour lecture does not make us grasp it fully, but the hard work is to be done later when we sit and grasp the concepts that were discussed. It is best to relax and listen to the lectures with an open mind.
A University is not just about memorizing facts and concepts, especially when one is already a professional. Your deep learnings can go beyond the syllabus, setting off new directions and building upon a unique set of knowledge that can take you into uncharted territory and eventually enviable success.
If you are going off-topic, take it as a sign of learning and exploration.
Begging the question is an example of a fallacy of presumption, also known as a circular argument: The conclusion appears at the beginning and the end of the argument. A is true because A is true.
A valid argument in support of a claim will offer evidence or reasons independent of the claim.
"The law says you should drive on the right side of the road, and the law is the law."
When someone is questioning this statement, they are questioning the law. If we say, "because that is the law," we are begging the question. We are assuming the validity of what the other person is questioning.
The most simple form of begging the question: A is true because A is true.
Circular reasoning can also be a bit longer:
Cognitive Bias is a predictable pattern of mental errors where we misperceive reality and move away from the most likely way of reaching our goals.
These mental blind spots impact all areas of life. Cognitive biases have to do with judgment, not mood.
Unconscious bias refers to unconscious forms of discrimination and stereotyping. Unconscious bias often leads to discrimination, be it deliberate or unintentional.
Unconscious bias is different from cognitive biases. Cognitive biases relate to our brains' particular wiring, while unconscious bias refers to perceptions between different groups and are specific to different societies.
To define a paradigm shift, we should first look at a definition for a paradigm.
A paradigm is defined as a pattern that may be copied, or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made or thought about.
A paradigm shift is then defined as a major change that happens when a new and different way replaces the regular way of thinking or doing something.
Psychologist Jean Piaget saw children's development as a series of separate stages marked by periods of adjustments. Inspired partly by Piaget, Thomas Kuhn - a physicist, philosopher, and historian of science -proposed two kinds of scientific change:
He proposed that scientific revolutions are not a matter of incremental progress; they involve "paradigm shifts."
The term paradigm can be used in many distinct senses. For example:
What Thomas Kuhn meant originally by paradigm has, over time, assumed an expansive set of meanings, sufficiently open-ended to allow other possibilities to be explored.