A recent theory on forgetting states that everything we learn remains in storage inside our memory, but our ability to recall and retrieve that information fades if we do not practice fetching information.
Spaced Repetition Time Intervals can be practiced using:
Studying takes too much time, and there is only a limited number of hours. Spaced repetition method uses time intervals and makes you recall more information, using less time.
The spacing effect maximizes learning and your study becomes more efficient and consumes less time.
If there's a test coming up in the next 7 days, the recommended way to study: 3 to 4 sessions with spaces in between, instead of studying non-stop for 7 days.
This way, you study less, yet retain more for the day of the test.
When you deal with a crisis, you need managers and employees that can think on their feet and act fast without first looking for an instruction manual. It means that you need skilled improvisers.
Capable improvisers will steer their companies through crises, paradigm shifts, technological breakthroughs and environmental disasters. But employee training programs seldom focus on becoming better improvisers, and hiring teams don't often screen for improvisation skills.
A key factor in determining how improvisation skills develop is the extent to which an individual was competitively vs collaboratively oriented.
There is a view that sees self-control as a battle between impulsivity and deliberate foresight. This idea has roots in ideas from ancient Greeks.
The International Society for Research on Impulsivity defines the desire for smaller rewards available now over larger, but later rewards as a type of impulsivity that involves a lack of planning and regard for future consequences. But, this view rests on a false dichotomy between foresight and impulsivity.
People can use their foresight to prioritise the present. Many behaviours that seem like a lack of willpower are not caused by a reluctance to plan ahead. Instead, they come from our capacity for long-term thinking.
For example, our decision-making can be influenced by the motivation to avoid future regrets about missing out. People foresee their own reliable tendency to spend money on boring essentials. Pre-committing to indulgences forces us to have some fun.
People living in poverty tend to favour smaller immediate rewards over a larger delayed payoff.
A possible reason for this is if you live in a highly uncertain environment or where people tend not to keep their promises, a farsighted view will lead you to get what you can now. Even children will use background information when forming expectations about whether their patience will pay off.
Metacognition - the ability to reflect on our thinking - plays a large part in our decision-making processes.
We don't only have emotions or desires that drive us. We also reflect on our emotions, regret our decisions, and try to work around them to pursue our immediate and delayed goals.
The label of 'failure' when people don't opt for delayed gratification is often completely misleading, such as when someone chooses immediate rewards because they don't trust the promise of a delayed reward.
Prescriptive moulds that say how people are supposed to act is unhelpful. Instead, the goal should be to understand the actual reasons for decision-making within the broader context.
These terms sound very similar and are often used interchangeably in everyday conversations.
Efficacy is mostly used in a scientific setting. Efficacy is the ability to create an anticipated effect.
For example, a specific medication that improves a patient's symptoms in an ideal environment has demonstrated efficacy.
Efficacy is not always enough. Medication that improves a patient's symptoms under ideal conditions is technically getting things done, but not always the right things.
Effectiveness in clinical trials is about how well a treatment works in the real world, not just in perfectly controlled conditions.
Once you find an effective solution, you can try to improve it, or make it more efficient.
Efficiency is about doing this in the most economical way in terms of time, energy, or money.
There are many situations and disastrous circumstances where impulsive and emotional solutions are applied, which apparently solve the problem but unintentionally create new problems or collateral damage that may be worse. This is known as The Law Of Unintended Consequences.
Example: The Forest Service rapidly extinguished forest fires as soon as they erupted, causing larger, more severe forest fires due to an abundance of unburned deadwood spread all over.
Our worst decisions are only later known to us as being terrible ones. When we make those decisions, we think of them as good ones
We take shortcuts and solve problems in a quick-fix, rapid-relief method. We don’t consider any long-term effects or where the dominos will fall based on our choices.
Some basic techniques we can apply to minimize the unintended problems:
Even in this digital age, when automation is in full force and being swift on the keyboard is a crucial skill, using your hand and pencil is still on top of the charts for cognitive learning.
Every student of all age groups has one cognitive toolkit with them: a pen and a notebook, to be able to take notes by hand. Handwritten notes are an important and powerful practice to infuse information in the brain, making it easier to retrieve information when required.
Handwritten notes, letters, diaries and journals are an artful, reflective activity that aids learning, while becoming enduring over time.
Doodling and drawing illustrations also help us describe our learnings to others, strengthening and aiding visual learning in us as well as those who we teach.
Most people prefer the front right burner on their stove.
There are deep psychological reasons why many favor the front right side. Researchers claim that the four-burner stove problem is an outstanding issue in an ergonomic design that continues to attract academic attention.
Natural mapping happens when the relationship between an object and its controls are clear. It reduces the need for memory and allows for more intuitive interactions.
Most stoves are not naturally mapped. Typically the controls are arranged in a line while the burners are arranged in a rectangle. There are twenty-four possible arrangements. You have to use mental effort to understand which control goes with which burner.
In essence, we prefer the right burner because we've adapted to poorly mapped stoves.
The most powerful burners are in the front, leaving the back ones for simmering. More people are right-handed. While there are many reasons for preferring the front controls, on a deeper level, it is because we don't want to go through the trouble every time to figure out which burner will be most appropriate.
We can easily function without having a conscious knowledge of what we're doing.
When people take the time to learn precise information, it can help save them in the long run. But because the long-term benefits are minimal, people will continue to use the front right burner.
There are numerous everyday objects in our lives that we unthinkingly rely on to keep our lives running smoothly. These objects had to be designed.
Designers have to consider how users will think and how their muscle memory operates. They have to develop precise information to ensure that people can develop these convenient and reliable habits.
While some people are born creative, it is possible to acquire this skill. The right conditions and the right training can make everyone creative, in their own unique way.
As we move from the past where the industrial economy and more recently the knowledge economy had world domination, we reach the conceptual age, where the innovation economy thrives.
In various studies, it is found that creative people tend to be more driven, impulsive, and self-confident.
They are less conventional and unorthodox in many aspects of life.
Openness to new ideas, curiosity and disagreeableness comes as common traits of creative individuals, as they are opposite of normal or popular, and like Steve Jobs, are a prickly personality.
Creativity can be learned as a cognitive skill using the following steps:
The neural pathways in our brain, that drive creativity is where incubation happens; this process involves the entire brain, not just the right-brain side, as assumed by most.
These neural pathways fostering incubation are known as the default mode network (DMN). It jostles and dances for space and sparks with another pathway known as the cognitive control network (CCN), forming an outer layer of pathways.
Divergent thinking is a tuning out process that widens the mental ‘net’ and is akin to shifting the focus from micro to macro, or changing the focus altogether. Divergent thinking is a hallmark of incubation and eclipses even ‘IQ’ as a predictor to one’s creative powers.
Incubation is critical to restrain or inhibit habits that might otherwise hamper our creativity.
One way to continuously be in a state of mind that is prepared for a stroke of genius is to be happy-go-lucky, staying in a positive mood, with a relaxed, flexible state of attention.
For creative achievement to be realized, there are three broad cognitive abilities that are required:
Creativity is a never-ending slog and it’s best to keep writing, practising and just being in a river-like flow.
The amount of content on the Internet is huge and it’s practically impossible for us to consume it all. But we struggle with it anyway.
This creates a situation where we are constantly digesting information mainly because “we have got to know this.” Even if we never apply that information in our own lives.
In the case of information, reading several articles and sources on the same topic can create a lot of clutter. Because it creates internal struggles and questions:
... for organizing information:
It's a method of capturing thoughts and organizing them in a visual way.
This is an extremely effective tool to organize what matters most to you: If something is relevant to your goals and desires, write it down. If not, remove it from your mind.
Make a to-do list every day and use that to organize the most important tasks for you to complete that day.
Lists help to organize what must be done and give you a sense of time management as well.
Put the notes that you make into specific groups of information. For example, if you have a lot of information on business ideas, or opportunities, write them in a book or place them in a digital document.
Toss out the information you no longer need or have tried before.
This strategy takes the idea of making lists to the next level: summarizing the information you consume or placing the key points in a list you can consult later.
It doesn’t have to be organized in a collection or anything. The idea is that it’ll be easier to digest and process later when your brain has energy.