From 1940 to 1942, Victor Frankl was a director of the Neurological Department of the Rothschild Hospital, and from 1946 to 1970 he was the director of Vienna Polyclinic of Neurology.
As the only member of his family to survive the Nazi concentration camps, he developed a theory that individuals can endure hardship and suffering through searching for meaning and purpose.
"Logos" is Greek for meaning, and logotherapy is used to help patients find personal meaning in life.
Viktor Frankl believed humans are motivated by a desire to find meaning in life. He argued that even in the most miserable circumstances, life can have meaning. Viktor Frankl wrote one thing that can't be taken from a person is to choose one's attitude in any given set of circumstances.
One can discover meaning in life by doing the following:
In 1961, psychologist Rollo May, founder of the existential movement in the United States, argued that logotherapy was equivalent to authoritarianism, where the therapist dictates solutions to the patient.
It may be that logotherapy argues that there are always clear solutions to problems and that the therapist's task is to find these. But Viktor Frankl argued that logotherapy really educates the patient to take responsibility.
The availability of experiencing the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter depends on your location.
Those who live in the countries near the equator experience constant temperatures throughout the year where winters and summers are indiscernible due to their position on the outer curve of the earth where it receives constant light from the sun. While areas in the north and south are able to experience the changing of seasons more significantly.
The reason we experience seasons is because of the tilting of the earth towards the sun. How the planet rotates around its axis affects the way we experience the seasons. Such as the summer and winter solstice being our longest and shortest days of the year.
Moreover, other factors also affect the way we experience seasons significantly, therefore the seasons have a wide variety of what we may experience during the year and current location.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has been around since the 1950s. The original pioneers dreamed of a computer that could perform tasks like humans, such as playing chess or translating languages. But the plans didn't come to fruition, and AI soon fell out of favour.
AI technology continued to improve exponentially over the next few decades. Many organisations now embrace AI as a core element of their business.
Deep learning is just one kind of AI, where AI is loosely inspired by the way our brains work.
Some AIs use advanced statistics to help computers make predictions; others use logic to make deductions about their environment, while others simulate evolution or even swarms of bees to find solutions to difficult problems.
The more advanced AIs can recognise features in images better than us, give expert opinions more reliably than us, and play many games better than us.
But, AI can still not be made with the flexibility and learning capacity of the human brain. Neither do we understand how intelligence arises in humans, making it hard to match AIs with human intelligence.
When you unlock your phone by looking at it, an AI has recognised your face. AIs check for fraud every time you buy something online, monitor your online shopping behaviour, suggest news stories that you are more likely to be interested in, and answer questions in online help desks.
AIs can compose music, design buildings, and paint artworks.
AI is created to help us and should not be feared. Like all future technologies, we need to ensure that it is used responsibly.
When a person is suffering from depression or other anxiety and stress-related disorders, the tendency is to apply one experience to all future experiences, due to an overly negative outlook. This is known as overgeneralization and can worsen one's mental condition.
Example: If a person fumbles during a public speech, he or she can think that they will never speak in public now without fumbling again, and create a self-impression that they are not good at public speaking.
Humans have anxiety-related behaviours like chewing on nails, or stressing any part of their body, which are repetitive and habitual.
A new study shows that an increase in stress provides a surge in habitual behaviours, as they demand the least cognitive effort.
Our habit memories are mostly rigid and inflexible, so it can be a challenge when the changing environment and circumstances require a corresponding alteration in behaviour.
If a person is strictly adhering to their personal routines and habits, change can come as a shock, and also lead to many mental health issues like eating disorders, depression and anxiety disorders.
Improving mental flexibility and reducing the causes of stress and anxiety is the antidote to our unhealthy and repetitive habits and behaviours.
Mindfulness meditation can help us increase our cognitive flexibility, as can physical activity, social interaction and new experiences.
Many of us have been in a situation where our emotions prevent us from responding appropriately and seeing the big picture. For example, in cases where we feel extreme anger, stress, anxiety, and sadness.
The best way to handle these emotionally charged situations is to step away to create psychological distance between you and the situation.
Executive functioning is the set of abilities and behaviors that is controlled by the frontal lobe, including:
Executive functioning helps you to regulate your emotions better, which gives rise to psychological distancing.
The executive functioning also allows us to perform the following processes important for psychological distancing.
The act of psychological distancing is mostly atheoretical, meaning very little research describes how psychological distancing as a tool develops and functions in humans.
In an emotionally charged situation, for example, an argument, take a break for 15 minutes or physically leave the space, such as taking a walk.
By stepping out of the situation, you can disrupt the immediate intention and reframe the situation.
In an emotionally charged situation, try to imagine watching yourself from a distance. Ask yourself, "what you would think of someone else's behavior is you saw them in the same situation?"
By changing the focus to a third-person view, you can stop some of the immediate reactions and reconsider your behavior.
When you find yourself in an emotionally charged situation or that your behavior is not helpful, such as procrastinating, imagine yourself in the future looking back and observing your current behavior.
This allows you to look at the current event and its consequences in a broader context. If you procrastinate now, you'll have more work later. By making a snide remark now, you may have a weakened relationship later. By spending your money now, you are unable to save it for a long-term goal.
Researchers tested the cortisol levels of workers during the workday and on weekends and found the cortisol levels lower when the person was at work than when he or she was home.
The fact that stress levels go down when people are at work may indicate that there is something at work that is good for you.
In a study, men over all reported being happier at home than at work, while women were happier at work than at home.
This speaks of the fact that women have more to do at home at the end of a workday and less leisure time. The extra stuff is like a second shift. There is something about combining work and family that makes a home less of a happy place.
During war times, the common man is least prepared for dealing with the drastic change of circumstances, displacement, loss of life of the self and loved ones, along with injury, loss of property and mental trauma.
Social and financial distress, loss of morale, and death of innocents are the byproducts of war, the effects of which are felt on the common man for decades.
During the peak of World War II, where it was expected that the citizens would go through hell, the opposite happened. People turned out to be more resilient, driven and motivated during the war.
The looming threat of being dead at any time turned out to be beneficial for the mental conditions and toughness for the individuals. Suicides lessened, and social unity and community bonding increased manifold.
Modern society robs us of togetherness and social bonding at a primal level, with safe and easy lives detaching us from our loved ones, as we don’t feel the need to show our love and care, or make any sacrifices.
Along with that, having lots of money rarely makes one happy, as is seen with the rise of depression and suicides in the urban, affluent societies all across the world.
Paradoxically, in the times of disaster, when everything is breaking down, one’s mental health shows an improvement. A connection or bonding is formed due to everyone facing the same disaster. Situations requiring trust, co-dependence and sacrifice keep appearing for us to be able to survive, removing our disconnection with one another.
This happens because the way to relate to one another changes, and self-interest is dissolved while group interest becomes of prime importance.
The main difference between psychology and ethics refers to the end results the two lead to.
While what people would do in certain situations, from a psychological point of view is one thing, what they should do is something completely different, which relies more on making the right decisions.
Whenever you are in need of some advice, pay attention to how you ask the question: using 'should' instead of 'would' will automatically lead to more honesty and involvement from the other person.
It is entirely up to you whether you want to appeal to psychology or ethics, so choose your words wisely.