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Jade R.








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  • We tend to forget that the liver is a part of the organs that respond first against viruses and bacteria. Our livers are filled with cells that help in defending our immune system;
  • There are certain times where the liver aids other organs such as the brain when a person's blood sugar level drops. Since the brain relies on sugar as a source of energy, the liver reserve then releases the nutrients needed.


Your liver does more than you give it credit for

  • The liver is the first organ to receive the nutrients that are being absorbed by the intestine;
  • The liver is also a gatekeeper because it senses the overall nourishment of the body and stores sugar, fat, and some vitamins;
  • An overabundance of food intake may cause the liver to get overwhelmed and affect its storage capability.
  • The liver makes cholesterol, an important structure, despite its bad reputation;
  • It also makes blood plasma proteins.
  • Alcohol cannot be directly excreted thus needing to be transformed in order to be eliminated;
  • The processing of alcohol involves the production of acetaldehyde which is a foreign, toxic molecule so it is quickly transformed into a non-toxic molecule;
  • The consumption of alcohol faster on a regular basis than what the liver can process may cause it to become inflamed which can lead to cirrhosis and permanently scar the liver.
Calories are a measure of energy

Calories are the amount of energy in foods and beverages, or the amount of energy you burn exercising.

Energy is measured in Kilocalories (kcal) and kilojoules (kJ). If you're counting calories or comparing the calorie contents of foods, this can cause confusion.

Kcal vs. Calories: Differences and How to Convert

Calories can be small or large.

  • A large calorie estimates the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg (2.2 pounds) of water by 1°C (34°F).
  • A small calorie estimates the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram (0.035 ounces) of water by 1°C (34°F)

This means that 1 large calorie = 1,000 small calories, as 1 kg = 1,000 grams.

The term kilocalorie (kilo meaning 1,000) was created to refer to a large calorie. The term small calorie is only used in physics and chemistry research.

This means that with nutrition, the terms calories and kcal equal the same amount of energy (1 kilokalorie = 1 calorie in nutrition.)

One calorie (kcal) = 4.18 kJ

To convert from calories to kJ, multiply calories by 4.18.

For example, a medium-sized banana (118 grams) provides 105 calories (kcal). 105 x 4.18 = 439 kJ.

  1. The central nervous system (CNS). It includes the brain and spinal cord.
  2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS). It includes all the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord and extends to other parts of the body, including muscles and organs.

What You Should Know About the Peripheral Nervous System

The PNS's primary role is to connect the CNS to the organs, limbs, and skin. The peripheral nervous system is divided into two parts:

  1. The somatic nervous system. It is responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the CNS.
  2. The automatic nervous system. It is responsible for regulating involuntary body functions, such as heartbeat, digestion, breathing, and blood flow.

The somatic system is responsible for transmitting sensory information as well as voluntary movement. The system contains two major types of neurons:

  1. Motor neurons. They carry information from the brain and spinal cord to muscle fibers throughout the body. They allow us to take physical action.
  2. Sensory neurons. They allow us to take in sensory information and then carry the information from the nerves to the central nervous system.

The autonomic system controls aspects of the body that are usually not under voluntary control. The autonomic system is divided into two branches:

  1. Parasympathetic system: It helps maintain normal body functions and conserve physical resources. Once a threat is over, this system will slow the heart rate, slow the breathing, reduce blood flow to muscles, and constrict the pupils.
  2. Sympathetic system: This system prepares the body to expend energy to respond to environmental threats - the flight or fight response.
We rarely achieve our fitness goals

At the beginning of the year, we usually overcommit with our fitness schedule, we hurt ourselves and then never return.

We rarely reach our new year's fitness goals. But not because we don’t try hard enough - quite the opposite. We are going too hard, too fast in January; we burn out and injure ourselves, then we fully quit.

The Way We Make Fitness Resolutions Is All Wrong

Every year, at the very beginning, we start working on our fitness habits too hard, too quickly, in an unsustainable way, and expect instant gratification.

The instant commitment and expectation of instant gratification go together.

With resolutions, it tends to be pretty black-and-white: doing workouts seven times a week or doing nothing at all. We have to get used with living into the gray area.

This area can mean choosing a softer, less intimidating goal: moving more, instead of committing to work out seven times a week, for example.

Turn Up Your Palms

Whenever you're doing something that does not require use of your hands, turn them so that they're palm-side up. You also can do it while standing or walking, leaving your arms down at your sides and turning your palms so that they face outward in the direction you're facing.

Doing the palms up consistently helps your body to correct the posture by itself.

Improve Your Posture in One Simple Step

Too much chocolate is bad for you

Aside from obesity and cavities, here is why you shouldn't eat too much chocolate:

  • Chocolate in extremely large amounts can actually poison you. The poison comes from the roasted seeds of the Theobroma cacao plant
  • The toxic components found in this are: methylxanthine, alkaloids, theobromine and caffeine
  • The lethal dose to kill a person is = 1,000 mg/kg of the person's body weight

However, theobromine levels vary by chocolate type with cocoa powder and dark chocolate.

Is It Possible to Overdose on Chocolate?

  • Theobromine meddles with the nervous system, respiratory system, and the cardiovascular system. It may also cause excess urination.
  • With enormous amount it can: increase heart rate, cause extreme sweating, trembling, loss of appetite, severe headache, and a drop in blood pressure.

Chocolate is a good treat for yourself, but not for your dog.

  • Dogs can eat chocolate but only with a very small amount. Chocolate to dogs can be extremely poisonous. A 100g of chocolate can be deadly to a 10-kg dog.
  • Chocolate is metabolized in a very sluggish manner and could take days to clear from your dog's body.
  • It is much better to feed them a specifically-made treat for your dogs, and if you're wondering, cats are even more less tolerant of chocolate!

Misophonia is characterized by strong negative emotions such as anger and anxiety in response to everyday sounds other people make. These sounds include humming, chewing, typing, and even breathing.

People with this disorder are not just getting annoyed at the sounds. They suffer breakdowns in relationships or even quitting their jobs.

Misophonia: Why Do Some Sounds Drive People Crazy? | Live Science

Scientists do not fully understand misophonia but suspect it's caused by the way some people's brains process particular sounds and react to them.

Some studies found that the brains of people with misophonia showed hyperactivation of the salience network, a group of brain areas that direct our attention to important things in our surroundings. Trigger sounds send the salience network into an overdrive. Researchers found these brain areas are structurally more robust in people with misophonia.

There's a lot of similarity between people who experience misophonia, but also a lot of diversity.

Therapists use a variety of techniques that is often based on the symptoms. Those who experience fear and anxiety may respond to exposure-based treatments. Those who experience anger can learn to manage their distress through distraction or relaxation techniques.

Coffee: Health effects of brewing methods

There are seemingly infinite formulations of coffee - latte, cold brew, dalgona, flat white, espresso. A recent analysis compared brewing methods and analyzed the health effects.

  • Moderately drinking filtered coffee (or drip coffee) is the healthiest as it resulted in the lowest risk of cardiovascular mortality. It may even boost longevity.
  • Unfiltered coffee is the most dangerous brewing approach because unfiltered coffee contains substances that increase "bad" LDL cholesterol. A filter removes these. Espressos, cappuccinos, Turkish coffee, and coffee made with a French press fall into this category.

What’s the healthiest way to drink coffee? Study points to 1 technique

According to a study, drinking one to four cups of filtered coffee per day is associated with a 15 percent reduced risk of death from any cause compared to people who don't drink coffee. It could be because coffee is rich in antioxidants, including polyphenols.

Unfiltered coffee did not raise the risk of death compared to abstaining from coffee. However, in men aged 60 and above, unfiltered coffee was linked with elevated cardiovascular mortality.

Our Internal Biological Clock
  • If we want to get more out of each day, we might need to consider synchronizing with our own internal body clock, working according to our peak periods of creativity, energy and activity.
  • Our biological clock controls most of our body’s functions, like the circadian rhythms that manage the sleep and wake cycles.
  • People working in shifts, for example, are thrown off their natural clocks, and experience fatigue, jet lag or sleep disturbances.

Synchronizing Your Biological Clock With a Schedule

Our mental alertness, mood, stress, hunger levels, heart mechanism, and immunity are controlled by the various rhythms synced to the thermostat-like biological clock in our body.

Circadian rhythms control our eating habits, body temperature, digestion, hormone levels, resulting in a huge impact on our overall health. Any interruption in our circadian rhythm can lead to many health conditions known as lifestyle diseases.

  • Sleeping: Our age determines our body’s sleep cycle, with teens leading more sleep than adults. Afternoon naps are great for your health.
  • Eating: The time we eat might help us control our metabolism and prevent gastronomical problems, and altering your eating schedule resets your biological clock.
  • Exercising: Regular exercise is a must, and physical strength is at its peak from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm.
  • Thinking: Our minds usually work best in the morning, making it the best time to tackle heavy activities. Concentration dips in the daytime when we feel sluggish, but new studies find that creativity is enhanced in a tired brain.

One can establish a productive daily schedule by:

  1. Establishing a sleep schedule, where you wake up (and go to bed) at the same time, and do not hit the snooze button.
  2. Giving your new schedule some time to sink in, and not giving up.
  3. Paying attention to your energy levels, which are unique to you, and shifting your activities accordingly.

Our busy schedules often throw the natural cycles of our body off-track. If we go against nature, here are bound to be health implications. Some people perform better in the early hours of the day, while others are at their peak in the evening.

Your goals with home exercising

Consider what you're trying to achieve.

  • If your goal is general health and well-being, a pleasant stroll is sufficient.
  • If you want to lift heavy weights, there isn't a minimalist setup that can replicate a barbell. While a barbell and weight plates would let you do almost everything, you need quite a bit of room to use them, ideally an outdoor area or a garage.

Everything you need for a basic home gym

Heavy kettlebells

Two heavy kettlebells are the next best thing to a bar and plates. A weight of between 20 and 24 kilograms (45 to 52 pounds) is recommended.

By using the kettlebells individually or together, you can focus on almost every muscle group by squatting, swinging, pressing, pulling, or pushing them.**

Resistance bands and a stick

Two kettlebells might not be enough resistance for movements like squats and deadlifts. Some resistance or pull-up bands can increase resistance when you do "sumo-style" squats and deadlifts by looping one band around your wide-spread feet and through the handles of the kettlebells.

Add a wooden broom handle, and you have a wide range of new exercises. With a stick and a band, you can do many pulling exercises.

Gymnastic rings

Gymnastic rings or suspension straps can be used to do pull-ups and rows. They are also used for some ab exercises.

Both gymnastic rings and suspension straps can be mounted to a sturdy door.

There are always pieces you can add to your gym, depending on your goals.

  • If you have space, a barbell is the best thing you can buy. Up to 225 pounds is suitable for an average person.
  • For cardio, you can run outside, add a jump rope, or use a bicycle.
  • Sandbags and slam balls allow for more high-intensity workouts outdoors.
  • A yoga mat makes the floor movements more comfortable.
  • More kettlebells or a set of dumbbells can also be added.

Gear will only be as good as your knowledge of how to use it safely and effectively.

  • Reddit's Bodyweight Fitness community has put together a fully-scalable bodyweight routine.
  • Online personal training can give you direction, accountability, and easy access to an expert coach.
  • Other services, like 8fit and NEOU, have many workouts to try out.




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