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Juliana L.

@juliana_ell37

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Behavioral Psychology And Weight Loss

Behavioral psychology deals with analyzing patterns in our actions and behaviors to understand why we act in a certain way.

Whether it is not waking up early, eating junk food, or not going to the gym, we can learn from the science of behavioral psychology and use the various techniques to successfully lose weight.

@juliana_ell37

Three ways behavioural psychology might help you lose weight

theconversation.com

  1. Goal setting: Creating an intention makes us change our behaviour. The good news is that even non-specific, vague goal-setting works. Large goals work better.
  2. Self-monitoring: Measuring the quantity and quality of our intake works towards healthier choices. Weekly monitoring of weight is an ideal strategy to stay motivated.
  3. Social Support: Friends, family and coaches involvement creates a sense of accountability. Actively engaging other people in your diet and exercise routine leads to fewer missed days and slip-ups, as our behaviour changes when we are with other people, or if we have to report our progress.
Tips for Getting Back to Sleep
  • Put the phone away: a big obstacle in your way is light.
  • Ignore the clock: it’s only add to your stress.
  • Don’t be afraid to get up: Do some stretching, light reading or a puzzle.
  • Engage in deep breathing exercises: in through your nose and out of your mouth in a rhythmic cycle.
  • Focus on what relaxes you: focus on mental images of what's most relaxing to you.

5 Scientific Tips for Getting Back to Sleep After You've Woken Up in the Middle of the Night

mentalfloss.com

Psychotherapy

... is the method of treating those who suffer from emotional and psychological problems.

This method of treatment isn't exactly brand new and contrary from popular belief it wasn't invented during the 20th century.

History of Psychotherapy

psychcentral.com

The ancient Greeks may not have been the best at treating mental illnesses but they did believe in the value of encouragment and consolation. They were the first to identify mental illnesses as an actual medical condition.

Some physicians, even after the fall of the Roman Empire, continued the support of psychotheraphy like Paraclesus who advocated the treatment of the insane.

Walter Cooper Dendy and Sigmund Freud were the most conspicuous during these times the former having coined "psychotherapeia" while the latter developed "psychoanalysis".

The growth of American psychology eventually led to new and more active therapies that involved a better understanding of human behavior.

Everything evolves as time passes by and the practice of psychotherapy was not an exception. Many more practices have emerged such as cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy, and even eclectic therapy.

As the practice becomes more available to a wider audience, the trend is to have a brief session of therapy that is designed specifically suited to the patient for specific problems.

Feeling stuck indoors

Cabin fever can be described as a feeling of restlessness and irritability when we are stuck indoors.

Confinement can frustrate what psychologists consider to be our three basic psychological needs:

  • Autonomy (choosing what we do)
  • Competence (feeling like we're achieving our aims
  • Relatedness (feeling connected to others)

Why do I feel angsty and cabin fever-y if I’m inside for more than a few hours? - BBC Science Focus Magazine

sciencefocus.com

  • Try to structure your day so that you have some feelings of control.
  • Consider using the time to learn new skills.
  • Stay in touch with friends and family.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Respect the privacy and space of those you live with.
  • Get some fresh air.
Eating disorders and exercise addiction

Research shows that people with an eating disorder are nearly four times as likely to become addicted to exercise.

Exercise addiction is defined as an obsessive approach to fitness that could harm someone's health and social life.

People with eating disorders likelier to get hooked on exercise | Eating disorders

amp.theguardian.com

Exercise addiction could be more likely in those with eating disorders because of a fear of gaining weight.

People with eating disorders have a higher risk of mortality. It is then important for people to develop a healthy relationship with food. Much of the information available is unhealthy, such as starving yourself for a few days or going on a juice diet.

Prevent Tiredness

General tiredness affects the majority of people.

Here are a few basic ideas to have all-day energy:

  1. Respect your body's sleep cycle
  2. Move around
  3. Moderate coffee intake.

Why You're Tired All the Time: How to Have All-Day Energy

collegeinfogeek.com

Respecting your body's sleep cycle

It is imperative to sleep 7 to 9 hours for most adults.

An alarm clock or phone alarm can interfere with the body's sleep cycle to wake us up before a cycle is completed. It is healthier to sleep while not being simulated and wake up naturally.

Don't be a Couch Potato

Apart from rest, it is crucial to have a daily exercise routine and get some sun exposure regularly.

Human beings are designed to move and be in the sun, trekking and toiling for hours. If you are feeling tired, walking outside in nature and getting some sun will help.

Moderate coffee intake

Caffeine occasionally can be good to drive off tiredness and fatigue but has the opposite effect when taken in excess.

Switch to teas instead of high-caffeine energy drinks and coffee.

Removing caffeine from coffee

Coffee beans are first softened in hot water or steam. Then caffeine is dissolved from the beans by using a solvent such as methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, or a gentler solvent such as water itself.

Liquid carbon dioxide is a much more expensive alternative, but has the added advantage that it does not remove the flavour molecules.

How is caffeine removed from decaf coffee? - BBC Science Focus Magazine

sciencefocus.com

The solvents used to obtain decaf coffee also remove some of the flavour molecules. These are then added back.

One way is to perform a first extraction with water, then shake up the water with a small volume of methylene chloride, or pass it through a charcoal filter. Both processes selectively remove the caffeine from the water but leave most of the flavour molecules.

The body positivity movement

Body positivity is the idea that all people deserve to have a positive body image, regardless of shape, size, and appearance.

The major goals of the body positivity movement include:

  • Challenging how society views the body.
  • Promoting the acceptance of all body shapes, sizes, and appearance.
  • Helping people to build confidence acceptance of their own bodies.
  • Addressing unrealistic body standards.

Why Body Positivity Is Important

verywellmind.com

The body positivity movement has its root in the fat acceptance movement of the 1960s. The body positivity movement began to emerge around 2012, first focusing on challenging unrealistic feminine beauty standards, but eventually shifting to the message that all bodies are beautiful.

Body positivity also means not beating yourself up over changes that happen naturally due to aging, pregnancy, or lifestyle choices.

The formation of body image starts early in life. Exposure to images of the "thin ideal" poses a danger. It develops the belief that beauty, success, and esteem are the result of thinness. When people internalize these ideas, they may experience body dissatisfaction, leading to depression, low self-esteem, and eating disorders.

Body positivity attempts to address these issues by helping people recognize the influences that promote a poor body image. They hope that people will adjust their body expectations and feel more positive and accepting of their own bodies.

  • Body positivity implies that people should do whatever they think to feel positive about how they look. The idealization of thinness can contribute to people engaging in actions such as extreme diets under the guise of feeling "body positive."
  • Body positivity can be non-inclusive. Images of body positivity messages often exclude, for example, people of color or those who are disabled.
  • The body positivity movement emphasizes the body's appearance as an important element of a person's self-perception while neglecting other more important aspects.

To maintain a healthy body image:

  • Adopt body neutrality. It's okay to admit that you don't like everything about your body or feel indifferent. Your worth and value do not lie in your body image.
  • Try health-focused self-care. Show respect for your body. Eat healthy meals because it fuels your mind and body. Exercise because it helps you feel energized.
The first Ice Cream Cup

The first ice cream cup was found in Egypt in a tomb in 2700BC.

It was a kind of mould made from two silver cups, one of which contained snow or crushed ice, and the other cooked fruit.

Ice cream, a short history. All the facts, flavours and who invented them

lifegate.com

  • Ancient Rome had special wells to store ice and snow. The ruins of Pompeii left traces to make us think that some shops specialised in selling crushed ice sweetened with honey.
  • In China and Japan, ice was gathered to preserve food. During the Tang Dynasty, a drink was recorded, consisting of milk cooked with flour and camphor, ten placed in iron containers, and buried in snow.
  • Before the Incas conquered the Caranquis, large blocks of ice were brought down from the top of the volcano. A large cauldron was filled with ice, snow, and fruit juice (and sometimes milk), and mixed until the juices and ice froze together.
  • One legend claims that the Medici family organised a competition for the most original culinary recipes. It was won by a chicken seller (a Ruggeri) who submitted a composition of water, sugar, and fruit. It is thought that Catherine de' Medici brought Ruggeri and his ice cream arts across the Alps.
  • Another half legend is about the architect Bernardo Buontalenti, who invented an iced dessert for Charles V of Spain in 1559, at a famous inaugural fest for the Belvedere Fort of Cosimo I de' Medici. His recipe is recorded as cold cream made of milk, honey, egg yolk, a sprinkle of wine, aromatised with bergamot, lemon, and orange.
  • 1674: The French author Nicolas Lemery cites the first recipe in French for aromatised ice.
  • 1685 - 1686: Scientist and poet Francesco Redi wrote in his poem Arianna inferma "Let cellars and ice-jugs be at the ready, and decanters packed to the neck is crystalline snow."
  • 1692 - 1694: Well-organised recipes for making sorbets were written by Antonio Latini, chef du table, and director of the kitchens for a Spanish viceroy in Naples. One chapter had detailed descriptions for how to mix snow with sugar, salt, lemon juice, strawberries, cherries, and chocolate. He also mentioned a "sorbet made of cooked milk."
  • 1769 - 1770: By the late 1700s, wafers rolled into a cone shape were served at the end of the meal or along with fruit and pastries.
  • 1770: Giovanni Basiolo brought ice cream to New York. He sold Panera, a semi-frozen coffee and milk product popular in Genoa.
  • 1775: Doctor Filippo Baldini from Naples published the book, 'Sorbets and frozen products, the medical and physical benefits.'
  • 1782: Iced products are served when George Washington inaugurates the celebrations for the birth of a new heir to the French throne. Iced products were served throughout the summer at other events and became habitual.
  • 1843: Nancy M. Johnson creates and patents an "artificial freezer" to make iced products. Two years later, William Young added a motor.
  • 1851: Jacob Fussel poured leftover cream and milk into the 'artificial freezer,' and later opens the first ice cream factory.
  • 1881: The beginning of the Sundae: cups of vanilla ice cream with various syrups and decorations on top.
  • 1884: In Turin, the Gelateria Pepino ice cream parlour opens and dry ice is used to transport ice cream.
  • 1896: Italo Marchioni begins to serve and sell cone-shaped wafer cups in New York. He patents his method of making them in 1903.
  • 1902: In Great Britain, Antonio Valvona patented an oven for baking "biscuit cups for ice creams."
  • 1904 St. Louis World Fair: Syrian Ernest A. Hamwi decided to curve his wafers to make them cone-shaped and offered them to replace ice creams sold on a plate.
  • 1920: The advent of ice cream vans. Harry Burt is the first to sell strolling ice creams on a stick. He bought vans with refrigeration units to supply the whole Mahoning Valley in Ohio.
  • 1923: Californian Frank Epperson patents a "frozen ice on a stick" and later named it Pop's Icle.
  • 1927: Otello Cattabriga from Bologna developed a mechanical system similar for churning butter. He manufactured the "electric motor-ice-cream-makers" on an industrial scale.
  • 1938: J.F. McCullough and Alex McCullough invented soft ice cream. They realised that ice cream tasted better before it was entirely frozen and developed a system that allowed more air in the ice cream.

The first ice cream factories opened in the USA before the war. In Italy, pre-confectioned ice cream was a post-war delicacy.

In recent years, home-made or artisan ice-cream has become increasingly sophisticated in technique and ingredients.

Muscle decline

As we grow older, certain household activities, like carrying groceries, picking up children, or moving furniture, are becoming more difficult.

When we are in our 30s, we lose up to 8 percent of our muscle mass per decade, along with up to 30 percent of our strength. This makes us more vulnerable to injury.

You’re never too old to regain that lost muscle

washingtonpost.com

We don't have to become weaker and less mobile with age. Men and women can regain some muscle mass and stay strong enough. The key is strength training.

Strength training improves your economy of movement, meaning the amount of energy you use to do a task with less pain and lower risk of injury.

Many people sit for most of the day. As a result, the muscles in the front of our bodies - the hip flexors and chest muscles - become short and tight.

That shuts off signals to their corresponding anterior muscles - the glutes and upper back, and those muscles become weak.

To start or resume strength training, target major muscle groups, especially the glutes and back.

Glutes activate the 'rear chain' of the body. These muscles are critical for posture, balance, running, jumping, and lifting heavy things.

Squats, rows, and leg presses are all good because they engage the core and require movement in multiple joints.

The front-facing muscles, such as chest, abs, biceps, and quadriceps, should be strengthened and stretched because of how tight they become in our deskbound lives. Many people consider a 1:2 ratio of exercises.

  • Exercise all the major muscles, including biceps, calves, and triceps.
  • Double your strengthening time for your rear-chain muscles.

Just about every exercise you can do in a gym you can do at home.Exercises that don't require equipment include squats, chair dips, pushups, pullups, plank, lunges, burpees, and step-ups. Containers can be used for strength training.

Muscles can be built by performing a high number of reps of a lighter weight - one you can lift at least 15 times before muscle failure.

The weekly guidelines for generally healthy people:

  • Two to three days for strength training
  • Aerobic activity at least five days at moderate intensity, or three days a week at high intensity
  • A stretching routine at least two days a week

Building and maintaining strength is essential at every age and very important after age 50. Older people who regularly strength-train can gain the benefits of a training regimen.

Exercise extends the period of physical independence. It sustains bone and countering the increased risk of osteoporosis.

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