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Musa

@musa81

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Authenticity In Psychology

Our lives are uncertain and impermanent, and paradoxically, this can lead us towards living authentically, as we realize that death is unavoidable, values are subjective, and life by itself is flux.

The Self-Perception Theory reveals that people manipulate their own information so that the audience is impressed. People portray authenticity and manipulate their behaviours to appear real when it is necessary.

@musa81

Authentic Living: How to Be Real According to Psychology

positivepsychology.com

  • Self-esteem is a sense that is experienced when our true motives, feelings, values and self-perception are operating without any obstacles. This increases our self-worth.
  • Modern technology, especially intrusive wearable devices is a disruptive change in how we exist in the world, with our authentic self, like our face or biometric information available to others.

A good life doesn’t mean a lack of problems, but having a diverse range of enriching experiences of all kinds. We realize that a complete, fulfilling life is a process, not an outcome.

When we fully develop our potential and live authentically, we experience meaning in life and personal growth with whatever is thrown at us. We are sincere, grateful, mindful and expressive. We engage in positive activities like volunteering, donating time or money, or helping society in other meaningful ways.

Know Yourself + Own Yourself + Be Yourself = The Authentic Life

Authenticity is achieved when we are outside what we are inside. Putting on an inauthentic self (faking authenticity) is tiring and also damaging to our mental health.

We should be aware of our body, listen to the voice inside, amplifying the hopes, dreams and fears. We have to know ourselves, face our truth and then own ourselves. Being yourself means being honest, sincere and genuine, the pathway to authenticity.

  1. Are you free to make your own choices?
  2. Can you express your own views and opinions without fear?
  3. Can you be yourself on a daily basis?
  4. Are you true towards who you really are?

If you are answering these questions as Yes, you are living an authentic life.

Authentic people are vulnerable and constantly enter a state of mutual vulnerability with others, taking it as a source of strength instead of a weakness.

Vulnerability is the wellspring from which love, belonging, joy, empathy and creativity erupt. When business leaders show humility and vulnerability, their team feels a stronger, authentic connection with them.

A human being’s natural inclination is always authenticity, as seen in every child, who is authentic by default and loves everyone unconditionally. The fault lies in how some kids are raised and how their self-identity and ego starts to develop 18 months after they are born.

A developing child of an authentic parent is free to choose their path, with no impositions. But even then, the love they learn is often conditional, as it is almost always related to good performance, or securing good marks, which can pave the way to inauthentic living as an adult.

As parents, our children should get unconditional love from us, instead of being tied to excelling in school or sports.

If we wish our child to be authentic, we have to stop putting conditions on our love towards them.

Albert Einstein
“If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough.”

8 Ways To Help You Learn Everything Faster

lifehack.org

Boost Learning Speed
  1. Learners proficient in fast-paced games are significantly faster at performing new cognitive tasks.
  2. By pretending you are teaching something to someone using simple language, you understand it better.
  3. Bilingual people may have a leg up when it comes to understanding new things and processing information, regardless of the learned language.
  4. Learning new material right before sleeping provides a significant retention advantage.
  5. Establishing as many connections as possible is an effective way to learn, and the best way to do that is to relate new information to known information. 
  6. The brain processes visual information faster than text. Include relevant visuals (charts, symbols, diagrams…) with learning materials to improve retention.
Perceptual Learning

Is the idea that we learn unconsciously through our senses in a self-regulated way, without requiring external reinforcement. 

More simply, you can learn to intuitively identify different situations or images through directly experiencing them in a fast-paced manner.

Learning By Switching Focus

We have 2 modes of thinking: focused (highly intensive mental processes when you are acutely aware of what you are thinking), and diffuse (a more relaxed mental process associated with sub-conscious thinking).

Sometimes the first solution found prevents you from seeing a wider range of possible solutions. To sidestep that, repeatedly intersperse short periods of intense focus on new information with periods of relaxed diffuse thinking.

Happiness is misunderstood

Happiness is often misunderstood as the presence of positive emotions and the absence of negative ones.

  • It leads to work cultures that put pressure on people to show false positive emotions.
  • Associating being happy with being cheerful all the time creates another problem. Happiness can be classified as less serious and superficial, resulting in universities that avoid developing "happy" graduates.

In defence of happiness: why emotional intelligence is key in the digital age

theconversation.com

Happiness is more than developing positive emotions. It also includes two other parts.

  • Having a clear and meaningful purpose.
  • Developing resilience enables us to deal with negative emotions when they appear.

Employers need to ensure workers can do engaging, meaningful and purpose-driven work to help achieve effectiveness and productivity.

People bring three dimensions to the job market: Physical, cognitive and emotional. Machines can take over both the physical and cognitive dimension. It is only in the emotional domain where humans still reign.

With increasingly more automated jobs, humans can still add value around creativity, relationships and self-fulfilment.

EI consists of four domains: self-awareness, social-awareness, self-management, and relationship-management.

Two daily exercises can help create foundational habits for EI.

  • Brain rewiring. Stating five things you're grateful for can help with gratitude.
  • "My emotions today", where you articulate your feelings, can help with emotional awareness.

Meditation and developing SMART (Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Relevant and Timely) goals, a mission statement and a personal vision statement can also help to strengthen your EI.

Aristotle argued that we become what we habitually do. If we spend our days thinking of everything that has gone poorly and how dark our future appears, we can think ourselves into misery.

While we should pay attention to the many injustices to be righted, we can also make the world a better place by being aware of the good things it already affords. We can change ourselves into the kind of people who seek out and celebrate things we can be thankful for.

How to make gratitude a way of life

fastcompany.com

  • In Judaism, the first words of the morning prayer could be translated, "I thank you."
  • From a Christian perspective, thanksgiving is vital. Jesus gives thanks before he shares his last meal with his disciples.
  • The 55th chapter of the Quran lists all the things humans have to be grateful for - the sun, moon, clouds, rain, air, grass, animals, plants, river, and oceans.
  • Hindu festivals celebrate blessings and offer thanks for them.
  • In Buddhism, gratitude develops patience and serves as an antidote to greed.

One way to cultivate a disposition of gratitude is to give thanks regularly - at the beginning of the day, at meals, and at the end of the day.

Holidays, weeks, seasons, and years can be punctuated with thanks - grateful prayer, writing thank-you notes, and keeping a gratitude journal.

The self-improvement process

If one day you find yourself in need to improve, you might as well take into account the following elements worthy of your attention: you ought to find an obsession that keeps your interest to improve constantly alive, once you have that, you should study your strengths and weaknesses related to this obsession in order to improve further.

How To Improve Yourself In 6 Months

jamesaltucher.com

If you are planning on improving yourself at something in particular, you should also be prepared to work on developing some other several micro-skills necessary in order to get the job done. 

It would be useful to gather up all the knowledge you have acquired up to the present moment, be it even by hours. The more, the better.

When trying to improve certain skills, bear in mind that failing is not an issue: the more you fail, the more chances you get to study your own mistakes and learn from them. 

Therefore, take risks by accepting different challenges related to your passion, which could teach you valuable lessons.

Get out of your comfort zone

In order to be successful, one has to be the best at what he or she does. One sure way to ensure your success is by doing things differently than the others. That is to say, you should leave the comfort zone everybody is so addicted to.

When thinking about self-improvement, try considering being original and having a unique point of view as a strong quality that makes you stand out from the crowd. 

Moreover, another secret which can enable you reach improvement faster could be by remembering, when in doubt, your basics.

When Psychology Became A Separate Scientific Discipline

When psychology developed as a science that was separate from biology and philosophy, they did not know how to describe the human mind and behaviour.

Different schools of psychology emerged that represent major theories within psychology. At first, psychologists identified with only one school of thought, but today, most psychologists draw on ideas and theories from various schools.

The 7 Major Schools of Thought in Psychology

verywellmind.com

  • Structuralism was the first school of thought and focused on breaking down mental processes into their most basic elements using techniques such as introspection. Major thinkers are Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener.
  • Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of structuralism and focused on the role that the mental processes play instead of the mental processes themselves. Thinkers associated with this outlook include John Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and Harvey Carr.
  • This school of psychology is based on the idea that we experience things as unified wholes.
  • The approach started in the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism.
  • Instead of breaking down thoughts and behaviour to their smallest parts, the gestalt psychologists believed you should view the whole of experience.
  • Behaviourism suggests that all behaviours can be explained by environmental causes. It includes classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
  • This school of thought became dominant in the 1950s and had a significant influence on the course of psychology.
  • It is still widely used today, such as behavioural training, token economies, aversion therapy, and behaviour modification programs.
  • Prominent thinkers are John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner.

Psychoanalysis emphasises the influence of the unconscious mind on behaviour.
Sigmund Freud found this school of thought. He believed that the mind was composed of three elements that interacted to create complex human behaviours:

  • Id consists of primal urges.
  • Ego is the part of personality that deals with reality.
  • Superego is the component that holds all of the ideals and values we internalise from our parents and culture.

Major thinkers include Anna Freud, Carl Jung, and Erik Erickson.

  • Humanistic psychology is a response to psychoanalysis and behaviourism and focuses on individual free will, personal growth, and self-actualisation.
  • This school of thought is focused on helping people achieve and fulfil their potential. It had a huge influence on positive psychology that centres on helping people live happier and more fulfilling lives.
  • Major humanist thinkers include Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
  • Cognitive psychology studies mental processes, including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn. It is related to other disciplines such as neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.
  • This branch of psychology emerged during the 1950s as a response to behaviourism that failed to account for how internal processes impacted behaviour. Research topics include information processing, language, memory, and perception.
  • Jean Piaget proposed the stages of cognitive development theory.
Making sourdough bread

Making sourdough bread may sound complicated. But that is the reason why it has gained cult-like status - because of the perceived steep learning curve to making bread.

Once you get past the mental barrier, it's a lot easier than it looks.

Every 20-Something Is Now Obsessed with Making Bread

vice.com

Sourdough bread tastes surprisingly good. It has a deep chewiness and a simple crusty cob that fills you up for the day. Making it is quite simple.

  • Bread dough does not have to be precise. Regular flour is also good to use if you can't find bread flour.
  • One good tip is to avoid dusting your table or dough with flour while kneading as it leads to a tight, dry, underdeveloped dough.
We are predictable

Most of us are more normal and far less special than we'd like to believe. 

Thinking you are different is just one more way in which you're normal. 

Think you're special? That just proves you're normal | Oliver Burkeman

theguardian.com

Your intelligence, your creativity, the degree to which the world has mistreated you are all normal and less quirky than you think.

Most people think they're above average drivers or they are unbiased. Or they believe they are special in a negative way. This all is known as illusory superiority.

Normal is good

Don't feel repelled by the normal. The ordinary is what shapes you. To dislike the normal means disdain for most of what happens in your life.  But that is normal too. However, it's a recipe for a joyless life.

Dreading your job

A lack of fulfillment at the workplace might be due to a misalignment between your purpose and your job.

Before deciding to quit your job, first exhaust all other avenues.

Desperate to quit your job? Read this first.

ideas.ted.com

If your boss or work environment is abusive, leave immediately.

However, if your boss or work environment aren't abusive and you've been there for only a few months, consider waiting. It takes around six months for anyone to settle into a job

If you've been at your job for more than six months, try to figure out the cause of your dread.

  • First, check your attitude. If your attitude is that work is just work, and you'll find your fulfillment elsewhere, you won't be committed. Other's will notice if you just check in and check out and label you as such.
  • Consider what else is wrong. Is it your coworker, your boss, or the job itself?

When a boss is yelling at people or being short with them, talk to them behind closed doors and say, "Hey, you were really short with us in the meeting. Are you OK?" Try and get across that you think they're acting out of character and you want to check on them.

Remember that your boss is human too and want to feel heard and feel like they belong. Inquire about your boss as a human being, perhaps ask them what they did for the weekend. We don't know why they're bad leaders - they may be under pressure or don't realize they're bad.

We might be the most junior person in the organization, but we still work with people. We can help them to go home fulfilled, that they feel heard and that someone has their back.

When you commit yourself to be the leader you wish you had, you can contribute to building a strong subculture so that people will come to work and feel fulfilled. Hopefully, that will impact those around you. Keep in mind that, like any other relationship, this will take time.

In a situation where you are sure you want to quit, put your energy into growing. Take advantage of the situation by, for example, learning how not to lead or how to work well as a team.

Then, when an opportunity presents itself, move on.

Thinking that you don't need to find a fulfilling job because you'll find fulfillment elsewhere is like saying you don't have to love the person you marry because you can get that elsewhere. This idea will set you up for a rocky situation.

You will spend most of your time at work, so it's essential to find a job you enjoy doing.

Egyptian Senet

One of the earliest known board games, Senet was played in 3100 BC and loved by Queen Nefertari and the Pharaoh Tutankhamun.

Played using a longboard having three rows of ten squares each, the players used a combination of luck and strategy to rush to the end of the board while blocking the other player from doing so. The game achieved a ritualistic, crystal ball-like significance among the people of Egypt.

The Best Board Games of the Ancient World

smithsonianmag.com

The Royal Game Of Ur
  • Also known as Twenty Squares, this 4500-year-old game, first unearthed in ancient Mesopotamia, is impressive in its complex rules and intricate design.
  • The beautiful game board uses twenty squares and has a narrow bridge in the middle part, was played in Iraq, Israel, Egypt, Turkey and many other ancient civilizations.
  • To finish the game as winners, players had to race their opponent to the opposite end of the board, moving pieces according to knucklebone dice rolls.
The Game of Mehen
  • Named after the Egyptian serpentine deity, Mehen is also known as the Egyptian Snake Game and was played between 3100 to 2300 BC.
  • Six players could simultaneously play this spiral board, each having a piece crafted in the shape of a lion or a sphere.
  • The rules of this game are not very clear because it lost its popularity after the decline of Egypt’s Old Kingdom and is hardly found in archaeological records.
Nine Men’s Morris

Resembling the game of modern-day checkers, Nine Men’s Morris was first played in 1400 BC in medieval Europe.

It had players directing nine ‘men’ across a grid, and combining three pieces of men together captured a man from the other side. The game was mentioned in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

The Game of Tafl

A disc-shaped gaming board was used to play Tafl, a Norse strategy game having widespread played as early as 400 A.D., according to the Oxford History of Board Games.y. It was played in Scandinavia along with Britain and Ireland.

A popular variant of the game, Hnefatafl, had the objective of defending a king from a group of taflmen(a group of attackers) by attempting to secure him in one of the four corner grids.

Ludus Latrunculorum

A variant of the ancient Greek game Petteia, this two-player strategy game was popular in ancient Rome. The board game had a grid of varying sizes, as documented in the first century BC.

A primitive combination of checkers and chess, Ludus Latrunculorum, also known as Latrunculi had the players moving backwards and sideways in the grid with the aim of surrounding an isolated enemy player. Its exact rules remain unclear.

Patolli
  • Invented in Mesoamerica, The Aztec game of Patolli was an early gambling game with cross-shaped track used to move pebbles, along with a dice made of drilled beans.
  • Also called Patoliztli, this game was extremely prevalent in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, played by the commons as well as the aristocrats.
  • Players used to wager with their whole belongings and even their own lives in this high stakes game.
Chess

Originating from the ancient Indian war strategy game called Chaturanga, the game of Chess had pieces resembling kings, queens, infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants moving in diverse patterns on the square chessboard. The early version also had an element of chance, which was eliminated from modern chess.

A later version of the game, called Shatranj resembles modern chess and had the Queen piece as the most powerful of all pieces, reflecting on the rise of the empowered female royals of the 15th and 16th century.

Backgammon
  • A two-player game with thirty pieces on the board, Backgammon had the objective to get each player to remove, or ‘bear off’ all of their pieces off the board.
  • Skill and luck are mixed potently in this board game featuring twenty-four triangles, with many historians writing about the game’s origins being The Game Of Ur.
  • Widely played in Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean, Backgammon had about twenty-five versions and names like Tric-Trac, Irish, and Bräde.