There are two main types of decision-makers:
Each one has its benefits and drawbacks. Understanding which one you are can help improve your choices.
A maximiser will weigh choices carefully to find the best one. On paper, their decisions look well-informed, logical and efficient.
But there are drawbacks. They have trouble making the perfect decision and take a very long time finding the best solution. Once they do find a solution, they may experience regret about their choice.
Satisficers are people who prefer to make decisions quickly by weighing fewer choices and then go with their gut. They opt for what's acceptable, not for the 'best' option.
A drawback is that they may not get the 'best' outcome that will give them the maximum return.
Most people fall somewhere between maximiser and satisficer. The perfect mix would be to satisfice most of the time and only maximise a decision when the stakes are high, such as buying a house or choosing a job.
However, after the choice, you have to return to thinking like a satisfice to prevent feeling dissatisfied with your decision.
Preparation steps before a note-taking session:
Taking a structured approach to note-taking is the best way. Put the outline notes by choosing four or five key points of the lecture, followed by in-depth sub-points. One way to review is to use the Cornell Method, which divides the note sheet into three sections:
The mind map is a visual diagram of abstract concepts.
It works best in subjects like chemistry, history and philosophy, subjects having a neural network like interlocked and complex topics.
Using a laptop is not an ideal way to take notes or to learn, during a lecture.
It is important to understand the basic structure and content of the text you are reading.
The limited amount of load we can take on our working memory, which functions like computer RAM, is called the cognitive load.
Miller's Law states that we need to limit our cognitive loads and hold on to approximately seven number of objects at a given time.
To increase our learning performance, we need to balance our cognitive load. It helps to understand what the three types of cognitive loads are:
People everywhere read words in a very similar way regardless if it is made from pictures, such as pictographs (Chinese characters), or words made from letters.
This knowledge gives us insight into how writing developed and how we read as well as how we can delve deeper into creativity and communication.
Some of the earliest writing is from 3000B.C. Mesopotamia. They recorded entries on tablets about the quantities of goods in some kind of bookkeeping.
They wrote down in order to keep account of who delivered what when. But this system was still far away from expressing ideas and writing great works of literature.
Japanese children learn two writing systems: The kanji system is based on Chinese characters, and the kana system is purely phonetic.
Different areas of the brain are active when we read. We extract visual information that is correlated with sound to get meaning.
Reading does not just involve learning the letters. You have to understand and recognize the words, too. Skilled readers learn to recognize the whole word as a unit and connect it directly to meaning.
Eureka moments may seem unpredictable and unreplicable. But there are ways to coax these inspired ideas from their hiding places. One of the best is to take a break from thinking about a problem or dilemma.
They are linked to the story of Archimedes and the gold crown ( when he realized while taking a bath that he can use displaced water to assess the density of the king's crown and, therefore, its gold content).
...not distractions. Activities like checking email and watching TV stop our background thinking and do not let the mind wander in places that make for creative insight.
Historical context deals with the details of the time and place surrounding memories, stories, and characters.
The details enable us to interpret and analyze works of the past or the future, rather than judging them only by contemporary standards.
Historical context is important when interpreting behavior and speech.
For example: "Sally hid her hands behind her back and crossed her fingers before she answered." It sounds innocent on its own. However, reading it as a statement from a transcript during the 1692 Salem Witch Trials will make you realize that she was a candidate for the gallows.
We cannot fully appreciate or understand a work of literature without context.
Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" cannot be fully understood if the reader is unaware of the Romantic movement in the early 19th century. The lives of Europeans were transformed by the technological disruptions of the Industrial Age. The Romantics captured the public's sense of isolation and fear that many experienced. Knowing this backdrop changes "Frankenstein" into an allegory for how technology can destroy us.
Rationalism is the philosophical idea where reason is the ultimate source of human knowledge.
It stands in contrast to empiricism, where the senses are enough to justify knowledge.
René Descartes thought we know objects through reason.
Simple problems may be solved using our senses, but more complicated issues need reason to figure it out. We can easily distinguish between a triangle and a square. But when we consider two polygons, one with a thousand sides and the other with a thousand and one sides, we use reason to tell them apart.
Rationalism characterizes a wide range of philosophical topics.
It means to be able to break down a big system into its sections and putting it back together. The target is to identify the strong and weak links: how the sections work, don’t work, or could potentially work and applying this knowledge to engineer useful outcomes.
There is no engineering method, so modular systems thinking varies with contexts.
Stories, fiction included, act as a kind of replacement for life. You can learn information from them very effortlessly. You'll also remember false information without realizing and will find fictional stories emotionally arousing.
The reason we react to fiction as though it were real is that our mind does not even realize that fiction is fiction.
When stories are done well, they are like artificial sweeteners - they fool the mind into thinking we're consuming the real thing.
For example, children sometimes really believe that puppets are alive. Even animals sometimes react to pictures as if they are real things.
The rational part of our mind knows that what we're looking at, or reading, isn't real. However, the perceptual areas of our brains are very closely connected to our emotions.
Emotions force us to interpret the world differently. Research reveals how fear can affect vision, moods can make us more or less susceptible to visual illusions, and desire can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects.