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Using Primary Sources in Research Projects - Definition and Examples

Raw Data

For an artefact to qualify as a primary source, it has to be created during the event or experience at a particular time in history and record the data from that time. Data from primary sources may be raw, biased and subjective.

Also called original sources, it is often an unreliable source of information due to distortion, selective recall, and selective omission.

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Using Primary Sources in Research Projects - Definition and Examples

Using Primary Sources in Research Projects - Definition and Examples

https://www.thoughtco.com/primary-source-research-1691678

thoughtco.com

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Key Ideas

First-Hand Knowledge

Just like text-book knowledge is different from actual experience, primary source refers to information that is firsthand, something actually studied and created, instead of just referenced from an existing source.

Primary sources provide a more accurate description of history.

Raw Data

For an artefact to qualify as a primary source, it has to be created during the event or experience at a particular time in history and record the data from that time. Data from primary sources may be raw, biased and subjective.

Also called original sources, it is often an unreliable source of information due to distortion, selective recall, and selective omission.

Supporting Historical Claims

Primary sources, with all its faults, provide the raw data to build the main historical event or hypothesis, and can also be used as evidence to support a historical claim.

Historically, documents, objects, maps, tools, and clothing may be the primary sources, providing the necessary evidence.

Mapping Information

In many situations, secondary sources are a better fit to comprehend and understand basic facts, and they are better mapped and systematic in nature.

Primary data is best collected by actual field research, content analysis, surveys and real-time experiments.

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Failure
Failure

Success is sought after by most, while failure is looked down upon, even seen as something shameful.

More than success, it is our failures, errors and rejections that provide us wit...

The Ostrich Effect

Once we have invested our time, effort and resources in something, we tend to avoid correcting ourselves in real-time if we are off-track.

Inversely, when people engage in mental contrasting, anticipating the upcoming obstacles, they tend to succeed.

Failure Is A Goldmine

Sharing information on failure among peers means less work overall, and better success for the entire team, as team members do not have to reinvent the wheel by making the same mistake to learn from it.

People do not share failure as it hurts their self-esteem, but if we keep the personal equation aside, a lot can be gained from the collective knowledge of what didn’t work.

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Information storms

We often feel overwhelmed when we are exposed to a large volume of information. We also rely on secondary knowledge that does not come from any external source.

To put it another way: rightly...

How misinformation builds
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  • If we search for online information, instead of coming up with our own way of assessing the quality or the usefulness of every website,  we rely on Google's PageRank algorithm to come up with the best sites. In essence, we rely on other people to source information by use of user traffic, reviews, ratings, clicks and likes.
How to handle an infostorm

Infostorms are like actual storms: they are a product of climatic conditions. Different climates can produce different results.

The more we understand the chain of events that led to a particular view, the better we are equipped to appreciate it if we are skeptical or take into account other perspectives.

Defining Eudaimonia
Defining Eudaimonia

Eudaimonia is a term which comes from Aristotle’s work called ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ and means individual well-being and happiness. It combines the prefix eu (meaning good) ...

Plato And Eudaimonism
  • Plato believed that because we feel unhappy internally when we do something wrong, eudaimonia is the highest feeling of moral thought and behaviour where there is real happiness from within. Happiness, according to him, was about living in the pursuit of various virtues, central to flourishing.
  • Plato never mentioned the term eudaimonia, but his writings on the concept of courage, justice, wisdom and moderation point towards the same domain of wellbeing.
Aristotle And Eudaimonism

Aristotle in his many works has provided numerous interpretations of eudaimonia, explaining it as something reflecting the pursuit of virtue, excellence and the best within us. According to him, eudaimonia is a rational activity aimed at the pursuit of what is worthwhile in life.

Having an intention to be virtuous was an important factor for eudaimonia.

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Emotions

They are basal responses that begin in the subcortical areas of the brain responsible for producing biochemical reactions to environmental stimuli that have a direct impact on our physical state.&n...

Feelings

Feelings are preceded by emotions and tend to be our reactions to them. Emotions are a more generalized experience across humans, but feelings are more subjective and influenced by our personal experiences and interpretations, thus they are harder to measure.

Negative Emotions

They can be defined as unpleasant or unhappy emotions evoked in individuals to express a negative effect towards something.

Although some are labeled negative, all emotions are normal to the human experience. And it’s important to understand when and why negative emotions might arise, and develop positive behaviors to address them.

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The Allure Of Authority
The Allure Of Authority

Many people are susceptible to follow and be ruled by an authority figure and obey commands that defy logic, reasoning and are also unfair or dangerous to others.

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Reasons How Authoritarians Control People
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  3. They use incremental action by gradually increasing the demands that are made on others.
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  5. They use the power of fear by discrediting facts, scapegoating, polarization, and divide and rule tactics.
The Two Roads Of Our Brain

Normally, we utilize the ‘high road’, the main regions of the brain (thoughtfulness and reasoning) before any information reaches the amygdala (region of emotional response).

When a brain reacts due to any kind of threat, the main brain regions are skipped as the ‘low road’ is taken, sending the information directly to the emotional processing region, activating stress, anxiety and fear-based reactions.

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Paleo concept

Humans evolved on a diet very different from today's eating habits. To be healthier, leaner, stronger and fitter, we must re-think our diet and remove some of the food groups we ...

What to eat
  • Animals (especially a "whole animal" approach, including organs, bone marrow, cartilage, and organs).
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  • Raw nuts and seeds.
  • Added fats (like coconut oil, avocado, butter, ghee).
What to avoid
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  • Heavily processed oils, such as canola and soybean oil.
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Awe brings perspective

Each of us is the protagonist of our own life. Our goals feel like the most important thing in our world.

But every now and then, a moment of awe challenges our understanding of the world...

Defining Awe

Awe is an emotional response to being in the presence of something greater than yourself, and that exceeds current knowledge structures.

Awe is a positive emotion and has a broadening effect on our thoughts and actions.

Awe-inducing stimuli

Feelings of awe have historically been recorded when individuals encounter contact with a "higher" power.

In modern times, the main triggers of awe are philosophical ones such as literature, music, paintings, and nature. Examples include natural wonders or events such as childbirth.

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Productive professionals

One research survey, involving 20 000 individuals from six continents, wanted to find out why some people are more productive than others. 

They found professionals with the highest prod...

Productive habits

Highly productive professionals share the same clusters of habits:

  • They plan their work based on their top priorities and then acted with a definite objective
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  • They understand the needs of their colleagues, enabling short meetings, responsive communications, and clear directions.
Age and productivity

Age and seniority highly correlate with personal productivity.

Habits of seniors include:

  • Developing routines for low-value activities.
  • Managing message flow
  • Running effective meetings
  • Delegating tasks

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