To become a voting member for The Academy, one has to ‘have a distinction in the motion picture arts and sciences’ in their chosen field of work, and also fulfil certain quantitative criteria. Wannabe Academy members can also choose two sponsors to refer them to the Academy committee, who can then take a call.
The members can only belong to one field, say a producer, director or actor, and not multiple branches.
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The complicated and long-drawn process to shortlist Oscar nominees involves more than 8000 voting members along with the actors, actresses, directors and other professionals in the moviemaking business.
An accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers is assigned the duty to mail out the ballots and tabulate the votes, a process that takes a total of 1700 hours.
A movie producer/distributor has to submit a form in early December, with the content meeting certain criteria: length is at least 40 minutes, theatre screening is done for at least seven days, and is not being premiered on television.
Once the ballots are sent out, the voting members can pick whatever they want, and then once the voted ballots are sent back, PricewaterhouseCoopers starts the number crunching.
Coffee beans are first softened in hot water or steam. Then caffeine is dissolved from the beans by using a solvent such as methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, or a gentler solvent such as water itself.
Liquid carbon dioxide is a much more expensive alternative, but has the added advantage that it does not remove the flavour molecules.
Laughter is a form of social bonding because it is contagious and allows us to show that we are non-threatening.
We laugh when we see or hear something funny. We laugh to show that we are being silly.
Nutrition experts provide their insights on our morning hydration process: