Leo Szilard, a Hungarian-born Jew, fled Germany for the UK two months after Adolf Hitler became chancellor.
At the time, James Chadwick just discovered the neutron. Not long after, Cambridge physicists split the atom by bombarding a lithium nucleus with protons. In this, they confirmed Albert Einstein's idea that mass and energy are different forms of the same thing.
In 1933, Szilard thought that if you could find an atom that was split by neutrons, and in the process, release two or more neutrons, then the mass would emit a huge amount of energy.
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In 1942, a pile of uranium and graphite was assembled in a squash court underneath a stand on a football field in Chicago. Then, on 2 December 1942, the first man-made nuclear chain reaction was created. Once confirmed, Szilard shook hands with Fermi and said, “This will go down as a black day in the history of mankind.”
On 16 July 1945, the US detonated the world’s first nuclear bomb in the New Mexico desert. The test proved that nuclear energy could be weaponised.
After the discovery of Fermin, Szilard joined him in New York. Together they figured that a kilogram of uranium would make energy similar to 20,000 tonnes of TNT. However, Szilard knew that this discovery could be disastrous and feared that the Nazis would soon figure this out too.
In 1940, two German physicists working in the UK worked out how to produce uranium-235 in high quantities, how it could be used to make a bomb, and the disastrous consequences if they succeeded.
In March 1940, German physicists Rudolf Peierls and Otto Frisch wrote to the British government in their Memorandum on the Properties of a Radioactive 'Super-Bomb', urging them to take action. It led to the British bomb project, codenamed Tube Alloys.
The US government appointed physicist Arthur Compton to lead a nuclear weapons programme, eventually named the Manhattan Project. Over the next four years, the US, UK and Canada poured resources into the Manhattan Project. Tube Alloys was eventually joined with the US project.
First, Marie Skłodowska Curie won in 1903 for her studies of radioactivity. She shared the prize with her husband, Pierre Curie, and with the other discoverer of radioactivity, Henri Bequerel.
Originally, the Nobel committee had only selected Pierre Curie — but he refused to accept the prize without proper acknowledgement of Marie’s contribution.
Then in 1911, Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for her discovery and studies of radium and polonium.
Many insights of Albert Einstein are now part of popular imagination: black holes, time warps, and wormholes show up in movies and books.
Less famous, but probably the most revolutionary part of Einstein's phenomena, is a simple idea that shows how pieces fit together and illuminate the road ahead.
Quantum physics is the field of physics that explains how everything works.
It is the best description of the nature of the particles that make up matter and the forces with which they interact. If you want to explain how photons on light turn to electrical current in a solar panel, or how the sun keeps burning, you'll need to use quantum physics.
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