Cristhian A Martínezis - Deepstash
Business Writing

Learn more about artsandculture with this collection

How to write clearly and concisely

How to use proper grammar and punctuation

How to structure a business document

Business Writing

Discover 62 similar ideas in

It takes just

8 mins to read

Cristhian A Martínezis

A clearer conceptualisation of hate might also, by extension, contribute to a better understanding of related concepts such as hate speech or hate crime, providing tools for legal actions or anti-hate initiatives. There is much more to learn about this strong negative emotion, but we are developing a better sense of what, in fact, it means to feel hate.


Cristhian A Martínezis a PhD candidate at the department of Experimental and Applied Psychology at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. His research focuses on understanding how people respond to transgressions insocial and political spheres.


36 reads


A Distinct Feeling

People also perceived hated individuals as more threatening to them personally than individuals toward whom they felt other negative emotions.

These findings suggest that hate is a distinct feeling, but also that it shares some features with the other emotions, especially with contempt and...


67 reads

Goal-Oriented Mechanisms

Negative emotions are thought to have evolved as goal-oriented mechanisms that help individuals to coordinate their physiological, cognitive and behavioural systems for dealing with different threats.

Dislike is a broad negative affective state that guides people’s preferences.



58 reads


Although hate, too, is a negative affective state, it implies that one really wants the other person out of one’s life completely (as in the case of John, who wishes his coworker would disappear), and might be willing to take steps to make that happen.

When we compare hate with anger, conte...


39 reads

Moral Beliefs

This could indicate that at least part of what people find particularly aversive about their hate targets is the perception that those individuals or groups endorse the opposite of what they believe is fair, noble and right, or their idea of what is a good life or a good society.

These beli...


34 reads

The Hate's Targets

So, what is it that people find so threatening about the targets of their hate?

In a set of studies currently under review, we tested whether hate was triggered to a higher degree by threats to people’s resources and goals or by threats to their values and worldviews.

We found that ...


36 reads

Hate is a Heavy Subject

What does it mean to say that someone like John hates his coworker, rather than just disliking or feeling contempt for him?

People claim to ‘hate’ all sorts of things in their daily lives: drama, traffic jams, math, broccoli, Mondays. But if they are asked about other people, especially sp...


197 reads

Key Findings

Our key finding is that, across the different dimensions, hate seems most distinct from dislike and anger, somewhat less distinct from contempt, and least distinct from disgust.

For instance, compared with dislike, anger or contempt (not disgust), participants rated their experiences of ha...


71 reads

Hate's Goal

For example, if somebody lights a cigarette in a non-smoking area, people around might get angry, and their overt expression of anger (via direct remarks or body language) could induce the smoker to put out the cigarette or leave.

However, unlike anger, hate seems to be aimed not at the ta...


48 reads

Policymakers's Efforts

For instance, political ideologies that capitalise on identity threats, or on the supposedly evil character of certain groups, might be instilling much more than anger among followers – sowing the seeds for long-term aggression and fostering social division.

Policymakers who are conscious ...


39 reads

The Experience

We asked participants in the US to anonymously describe their own experiences of feeling each of these negative emotions, either toward an individual or a group.

They rated the emotional intensity and duration of each experience, how threatening they perceived the individual or group to be...


77 reads

A Stronger Reaction

When people feel hate, however, the targets are not just perceived as inferior, immoral or undesirable, although they might be perceived as all of these.

There is something else, something about them that motivates an especially strong reaction, to the point of wanting to eliminate them ph...


38 reads

Group's Disposition

That is likely one reason why people tend to experience hate for significantly longer periods of time than anger, which often dissipates relatively quickly once the unwanted behaviours cease.

Contempt and disgust are, like hate, focused on an individual’s or group’s disposition.



35 reads

An Emotion, an Attitude, a Sentiment?

Currently, there is no consensus among scholars about hate’s nature. Hate has been described widely as an emotion, but also as an attitude or a sentiment.

Some scholars think that hate is an extreme version of anger or dislike; some describe hate as a blend of emotions such as anger, conte...


163 reads

A Series of Studies

We also know that people can hate close individuals such as family members, friends or romantic partners. 

Still, there is a lack of empirical research examining hate’s distinctive features, partly because studying hate is methodologically difficult and research ethics boards are not very h...


90 reads

Moral Differences

 While these disagreements could be present to some degree when people feel emotions such as contempt and disgust (helping to explain their closeness to hate), when people feel hate, these moral differences might be taken as personal threats, based on the importance of people’s values and beliefs...


35 reads

The Pleasure of Hate

The Pleasure of Hate

Imagine John, an honest employee whose colleague is a bigot and a harasser of women. From their first interaction, John didn’t like the way his coworker made inappropriate jokes.

He recently called John ‘too soft’ after John declined his proposal to steal from their company to make some ‘e...


249 reads

Intense and Enduring

What we do know is that hate is intense and enduring, and it seems to be based on a view of its targets as essentially bad and threatening.

For example, when the Hutus slaughtered the Tutsis in the Rwanda genocide of 1994, the hate they experienced appears to have been based on the percept...


113 reads


Explore the World’s

Best Ideas

200,000+ ideas on pretty much any topic. Created by the smartest people around & well-organized so you can explore at will.

An Idea for Everything

Explore the biggest library of insights. And we've infused it with powerful filtering tools so you can easily find what you need.

Knowledge Library

Powerful Saving & Organizational Tools

Save ideas for later reading, for personalized stashes, or for remembering it later.

# Personal Growth

Take Your Ideas


Organize your ideas & listen on the go. And with Pro, there are no limits.

Listen on the go

Just press play and we take care of the words.

Never worry about spotty connections

No Internet access? No problem. Within the mobile app, all your ideas are available, even when offline.

Get Organized with Stashes

Ideas for your next work project? Quotes that inspire you? Put them in the right place so you never lose them.


2 Million Stashers


5,740 Reviews

App Store


72,690 Reviews

Google Play


Don’t look further if you love learning new things. A refreshing concept that provides quick ideas for busy thought leaders.

Shankul Varada

Best app ever! You heard it right. This app has helped me get back on my quest to get things done while equipping myself with knowledge everyday.

Sean Green

Great interesting short snippets of informative articles. Highly recommended to anyone who loves information and lacks patience.

Ashley Anthony

This app is LOADED with RELEVANT, HELPFUL, AND EDUCATIONAL material. It is creatively intellectual, yet minimal enough to not overstimulate and create a learning block. I am exceptionally impressed with this app!

Ghazala Begum

Even five minutes a day will improve your thinking. I've come across new ideas and learnt to improve existing ways to become more motivated, confident and happier.

Jamyson Haug

Great for quick bits of information and interesting ideas around whatever topics you are interested in. Visually, it looks great as well.

Giovanna Scalzone

Brilliant. It feels fresh and encouraging. So many interesting pieces of information that are just enough to absorb and apply. So happy I found this.

Laetitia Berton

I have only been using it for a few days now, but I have found answers to questions I had never consciously formulated, or to problems I face everyday at work or at home. I wish I had found this earlier, highly recommended!

Read & Learn

20x Faster





Access to 200,000+ ideas

Access to the mobile app

Unlimited idea saving & library

Unlimited history

Unlimited listening to ideas

Downloading & offline access

Personalized recommendations

Supercharge your mind with one idea per day

Enter your email and spend 1 minute every day to learn something new.


I agree to receive email updates