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The Thinking Ladder

The 4 Rungs of Thinking

  1. The Scientist, for whom Truth is important. It approaches anything with objectivity and accepts that there are things still unknown.
  2. The Sports Fan, for whom along with the truth, confirmation to his/her beliefs is also important; initial beliefs are the right ones and any new information is approached with confirmation bias.
  3. The Attorney, for whom confirmation of 'his own' version' of the Truth is important; for him, his truth is already The Truth and now he just has to prove it.
  4. The Zealot, for whom confirmation to his/her beliefs is the Truth; there is no reasoning, as the truth is already known, and there is no need to prove it.

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SIMILAR ARTICLES & IDEAS:

The right way to improve critical thinking
  • Create contexts that enable smart decisions: recognize what you’re actually doing when you’re reasoning about things and use this knowledge to try to avoid making common mistakes
  • ...
    Debating problems

    Many well-known problems of human reasoning disappear once you get a group of people together and let them talk about it.

    It's a good way to see your ideas refuted or let stronger ideas win the day. Although there’s a risk of group think and conformity pressures, if you take a large and diverse enough group, you’re more likely to be exposed to the best reasoning, which will tend to win out over the majority opinion.

    Critical thinking...

    ...doesn’t happen because you’ve studied some abstract logical form and come to valid deductions.

     It happens because you know enough about how the world works to rule out certain possibilities as being unlikely or impossible.

    The Real Career Landscape
    The Real Career Landscape
    If you can figure out how to get a reasonably accurate picture of the real career landscape out there, you have a massive edge over everyone else, most of whom will be using outdated convention...
    The career pitfall
    Careers used to be kind of like a 40-year tunnel. You picked your tunnel, and once you were in, that was that. You worked in that profession for 40 years or so before the tunnel spit you out on the other side into your retirement.

    Today’s career landscape isn’t a lineup of tunnels, it’s a massive, impossibly complex, rapidly changing science laboratory. 

    Why Career-path-carving is important.

    Time. A typical career will take up somewhere between 20% and 60% of your meaningful adult time.

    Quality of Life. Your career has a major effect on all your non-career hours.

    Impact. Whatever shape your career path ends up taking, the world will be altered by it.

    Identity. We tell people about our careers by telling them what we are.

    Living in the age o doubt
    Living in the age o doubt

    We live in a time when all scientific knowledge (the safety of fluoride, vaccines, climate change, moon landing, etc.) faces coordinated and vehement resistance.

    The acces...

    We now face risks we can’t easily analyze

    Our existence is invaded by science and technology as never before. For many of us, this brings comfort and rewards, but this existence is also more complicated and sometimes agitated.

    Our lives are full of real and imaginary risks, and distinguishing between them isn’t easy. We have to be able to decide what to believe and how to act on that.

    Marcia McNutt  - Geophysicist
    Marcia McNutt - Geophysicist

    “Science is not a body of facts. Science is a method for deciding whether what we choose to believe has a basis in the laws of nature or not.”