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Normal science is commonly held conclusions. When scientific revolutions occur, they can be invisible and hard to detect, but they are of crucial importance.
A person will only change their mind about a scientifically held belief from an old paradigm through repeated testing.
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Paradigms are at the heart of normal science. A paradigm is a collection of interconnected beliefs we use to understand the world. But it is a limited process.
Scientific discoveries become paradigms when they are remarkable enough to attract a loyal following but still leave questions and...
The scientific community cannot practise science without some set of accepted beliefs that form the foundation on how to practice science.
Normal science, the everyday work of scientists, is set on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like. Its success comes...
Normal science means the study based on the previous scientific knowledge that is learned through textbooks and formal education. These textbooks:
Scientists are happy to refer to past achievem...
Almost every field has certain established beliefs and paradigms. It means that nearly anything could be subject to a crisis.
When a paradigm changes, almost the entire world changes with them. Scientists ask different questions, follow different rules and use different terms.
Many people think that science progresses in a linear fashion, from ignorance to knowledge. If that were true, old ideas would never need to be overturned, only built upon.
Scientific revolutions happen in a specific pattern:
Because there is a paradigm doesn’t mean there is a set of rules that accompany it. Historians can generally find the paradigms of a given community, but finding the specific rules that the community followed is more difficult because:
One of the major functions of normal science is to solve anomalies. However, scientists often assure themselves there is a solution within the paradigm, and it must just be found. But this isn’t always the case.
Crises are a necessary precondition for the emergence of novel theories. Somet...
A paradigm will become messy as people try to expand their existing views outward into new, creative directions.
A crisis can end if:
"Money does not guarantee success." ~ Jose Mourinho
This book singlehandedly changed the way most people think about the philosophy behind science and how transformation happens.
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Psychologist Jean Piaget saw children's development as a series of separate stages marked by periods of adjustments. Inspired partly by Piaget, Thomas Kuhn - a physicist, philosopher, and historian of science -proposed two kinds of scientific change:
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