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Always learning

Innate immune cells are changed by previous infections or vaccination through trained immunity.

Because innate learning changes innate immune cells, infection by one invader can change how the immune system deals with a completely different invader.

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The immune system does an outstanding job most of the time. To provide such excellent protection against bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, our immune system must continuously learn.

Studies suggest the immune learning is strongly affected by environmental factors, like diet, lifestyle, surroundings, and previous infections.

Innate immunity cells quickly respond to invaders and can deal with over 90% of infections.
These cells recognize invaders by looking for broadly shared patterns, such as common molecules on the surface of most bacteria.

When the innate response fails to deal with an invasion, the adaptive immunity takes over. The adaptive cell looks for a specific pattern. It could be a particular protein on the surface of a virus or bacteria.

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