Various distinct senses - Deepstash

Various distinct senses

The term paradigm can be used in many distinct senses. For example:

  • A paradigm could refer to a special kind of achievement that draws an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity, but is open enough to leave all sorts of problems for the new group to solve.
  • Paradigms can be used to offer general epistemological viewpoints, like a broad sweep of reality, when it "determines large areas of experience at the same time."

What Thomas Kuhn meant originally by paradigm has, over time, assumed an expansive set of meanings, sufficiently open-ended to allow other possibilities to be explored.

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A paradigm shift

To define a paradigm shift, we should first look at a definition for a paradigm.

A paradigm is defined as a pattern that may be copied, or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made or thought about.

A paradigm shift is then defined as a major change that happens when a new and different way replaces the regular way of thinking or doing something.

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Psychologist Jean Piaget saw children's development as a series of separate stages marked by periods of adjustments. Inspired partly by Piaget, Thomas Kuhn - a physicist, philosopher, and historian of science -proposed two kinds of scientific change:

  • Incremental developments in the course of "normal science."
  • Scientific revolutions that accentuate the more stable phases.

He proposed that scientific revolutions are not a matter of incremental progress; they involve "paradigm shifts."

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Paradigm Theory

A Paradigm theory is a general theory that provides a broad theoretical framework or "conceptual scheme." It offers underlying assumptions, key concepts, and methodology to scientists working in a particular field. It gives their research its general direction and goals.

Examples of paradigm theories include Copernicus' heliocentric astronomy (with the sun at the center), Isaac Newton's theory of gravity, Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, germ theory in medicine, gene theory in biology.

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Hypothesis

A hypothesis is an initial statement regarding the cause and effect in a specific situation. It can be tested by experimentation and observation or by statistical analysis of probabilities from data. A useful hypothesis allows predictions by using deductive reasoning.

Sometimes a hypothesis is developed before new knowledge or technology can test it. The ancient Greeks proposed the concept of atoms, but it could only be tested centuries later.

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Soulmate
The term “soulmate” implies a special affinity, understanding, or powerful bond that exists between one person and another.

Soulmates experience communication at non-verbal as well as verbal levels, for instance, communication through eye-contact.

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