Ancient Rome built sophisticated infrastructure ranging from bridges, amphitheatres, aqueducts and even sewer systems.
The Roman network of roads, called Viae Romanae and meaning ‘Roman Ways’ was a huge breakthrough in quick and easy transportation of trade goods, military supplies, and free movement of civilians and soldiers.
The first roads were invented in the Bronze Age in 4000 BCE, created by the older Indus Valley Civilization. This was the first time that straight, 90 degree intersecting roads were seen.
The Roman civilization created advanced road systems that encouraged travel and connection, forming a lifeline of connecting various cultures, institutions and beliefs.
The Romans managed to create major roadways and highways with traffic segregation, something unheard of before.
They had 372 roads with 29 major highways. The first major roadway was called the Appian Way, connecting Rome with Capua, back in 312 BCE. This road was used efficiently during the Samnite Wars in the same era.
The city-state of Athens (5th and 4th centuries BCE) valued intellectual pursuits and open inquiry. That lead to the development of philosophy (the love of wisdom).
The ancient Athenians' focus on understanding themselves and the world around them provided an intellectual breakthrough in history. Debate and seeking the truth inspired thinkers and influenced the world we live in today.
Athens likely was named after the Olympian goddess of wisdom, Athena, who was also the city's patron deity. Athena was also the goddess of war and peace, as well as the goddess of craftsmanship and weaving.
The Acropolis is a distinctive feature of today's Athens that was built in the 5th century BCE. It is a cluster of buildings on a rocky outcrop. The famous Parthenon temple on the Acropolis was built to honor Athena and to serve the city's treasury.
Athens during the 5th century BCE was lively. The heart of Athens was its marketplace, or Agora (a place where people gather.) The structures surrounding the Agora's market stalls included stone benches, various altars, and temples, a building named the Aiakeion where laws and legal decisions were displayed, and various stoas or covered porticos.
Mohenjo-Daro is a city in today's Pakistan that pioneered new standards of urban sanitation. Mohenjo-Daro was the earliest and largest urban center of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, constructed circa 2500 BCE.
The people of the Indus Valley civilization invented new water supply and sanitation devices, including piping and a complex sewage system. Most of the city's houses had indoor baths and latrines with drains. This civilization is thought even to surpass the plumbing system of the later Roman civilization.
The Indus Valley civilization arose in the floodplains of the Indus and Sarasvati rivers around 5000 years ago.
In the largest structure in the city Mohenjo-Dar was an immense, elevated public bathhouse, measuring almost 900 square feet. The status of the bathhouse as the city's largest structure suggests that the people highly valued cleanliness.