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The curse of knowledge

The Feynman Technique

The Feynman Technique is a way to understand or reinforce your level of knowledge by pretending to explain the same to a child.

Explaining without the use of complicated words is a way to learn and retain knowledge that lasts.

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The curse of knowledge

The curse of knowledge

https://nesslabs.com/the-curse-of-knowledge

nesslabs.com

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Key Ideas

The Curse Of Knowledge

The Curse Of Knowledge is common among many experts, teachers and professionals, and is a cognitive bias where the knowledgeable person incorrectly assumes that others are able to decipher what he is trying to say.

This has serious implications in the field of education and sales when the better-informed speaker is unable to adjust their content and words to the level of the audience or prospect.

Avoiding The Curse Of Knowledge

The negative effects of the curse of knowledge can be avoided by:

  1. Questioning your assumptions and biases, and seeking alternatives to your beliefs for a broader perspective.
  2. Knowing your audience or prospect, accessing their level of knowledge.
  3. Asking honest feedback for your creations.
  4. Including infographics and visuals and minimizing jargon.

The Feynman Technique

The Feynman Technique is a way to understand or reinforce your level of knowledge by pretending to explain the same to a child.

Explaining without the use of complicated words is a way to learn and retain knowledge that lasts.

The Generation Effect

We retain things better when we make our own version of a learning material.

The Generation Effect shows that actively managing new information may create relationships between each item, facilitating the retrieval of information when it’s needed. Instead of mugging up old knowledge, try to create a new version of the content.

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The two parts of the ideation process
The two parts of the ideation process

The whole process of producing ideas doesn't end when an idea is generated. Ideation should be followed by an evaluation part.

  • Idea generation: ...
The mysticism around ideation

In Greek mythology, there were the muses, who provided inspiration for creative ideas.

Now, even if we stopped believing in muses, we still think about the process of producing ideas as something magical, that we can cannot explain or control.

"Idea generation could be thought of as a search for novelty, while its process partner, idea evaluation, might be thought of as an effort to make novel thinking practical, useful or relevant."

"Idea generation could be thought of as a search for novelty, while its process partner, idea evaluation, might be thought of as an effort to make novel thinking practical, useful or relevant."

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Practice with direction
Practice with direction

We tend to think that practice means endless repetition of the same task, where the goal is to progressively become an expert. The most efficient route to expertise is not mindless practice...

The talent fallacy

People believe that expert performance means the performer must be endowed with talent. This is only true for some individuals.

The difference between expert performers and regular people is that experts have spent a deliberate effort to improve their performance in a specific area. They practice with the objective of mastering it.

The promise of deliberate practice

Deliberate practice is focused, systematic, and purposeful.

  • It is designed specifically to improve performance.
  • It can be repeated a lot.
  • Feedback on results is continuously available.
  • It's highly demanding mentally.
  • It's not much fun.

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Our Wandering Minds
Our Wandering Minds

For at least two thousand years, our minds have been wandering away from the object of focus.

Mind-wandering is a factor of a human mind and varies according to how vivid a person’s...

The Neuroscience Of Mind-Wandering

Our brain’s executive system is active during any goal-oriented task, where there is a level of focus required.

During a period of passivity, the large scale brain networks become the default mode networks and work in tandem. This is our period of rest, where the entire brain is in a relaxed but highly active state.

This period is when we let our brain generate spontaneous thoughts while not being focused on anything.

The Constant Mental Oscillation

Our brain is oscillating between two different brain states: Focused thinking and Diffused thinking. This is the reason people have shower thoughts or sudden solutions to problems that are bothering them for long.

These two modes of thinking allow us to merge creativity with productivity.

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Evaluating The Mental Models We Use
Evaluating The Mental Models We Use

Mental models are a set of ideas, which like an algorithm, shapes our perception and understanding of how the world operates.

And we need to evaluate the validity of these shortc...

The Validity Of A Mental Model
  • In any research, the validity of any concept is the first thing to check.
  • One has to stress-test the rationality and see if the right thing is measured, for the right outcome to be divulged.
  • Validity helps us evaluate the accuracy and appropriateness of the mental model in a particular situation.
The Reliability Of A Mental Model

The most important part is to check the consistency of any mental model when the same circumstances are applied repeatedly. Ideally one has to get the same result. This is usually done by:

  1. Test-Retest Method: A set of diverse and repeated tests can check the reliability of a mental model.
  2. The Inter-Observer Method: This method takes into account data from different observers or administrators to cross-check the validity and reliability of a mental model.
The genetic aspect of happiness
The genetic aspect of happiness

Research found that socioeconomic status, educational attainment, marital status account for only 3% of the variance in well-being. Personality-related genetic influences determine up to 65% of...

The happiness set point

Numerous studies show that external life circumstances have a small impact on our long-term happiness.

Other research shows that happiness is very high immediately after a major positive event, but will return to the level it was in a month or two. This stable level of happiness is called your happiness set point.

Developing resilience

Your happiness set point is not fixed. It's more a soft baseline that your happiness will hover around for the majority of your life.

Resilience research proposes that your resilience is mostly your ability to keep your happiness at the set point while going through difficult experiences.

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Convergent and divergent thinking
Convergent  and divergent thinking
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Divergent thinking and playfulness

Research found that divergent thinking is linked to playfulness and creativity.

Children who play more tend to display curiosity, persistence, nonconformity, and a willingness to take risks. These are important characteristics for innovative solutions.

Divergent thinking can be practiced
  • Mind mapping helps your brain work by association. Start in the centre and add notes, connecting branches together.
  • Brainstorming. Generate as many ideas as possible.
  • Free writing. Focus on the question and write without stopping for a specified time.
  • Journaling. It helps to clarify your thinking while producing new ideas.
  • Art. Doodling, painting, creating graphs and illustrations will help you think outside the box.
  • Role playing. Putting yourself in the shoes of a different character is a good way to practice divergent thinking.
Neuroeducation
Neuroeducation

Neuroscientists explore the biology behind processes such as the formation of memories, creative processes, etc.

Neuroeducation is a recent discipline that draws together ...

The main applications of neuroeducation
  • Attention. To learn, we need to be able to focus on some aspects while ignoring or excluding others. For example, reading this paragraph while ignoring the noise around you.
  • Memory. Knowing how memory works and how you can make learning more efficient can increase your performance. Science-based techniques include interleaving and chunking.
  • Executive control. Being able to plan, to create a sequence of steps, and to retain important information for short periods. While most happens in the prefrontal cortex, lots of research is needed to understand how executive control works.
  • Social behaviour. Social Neuroscience is aiming to understand how our biology affects our social behaviours.
  • Neurodiversity. Conditions such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), dyscalculia (difficulty with arithmetical calculations), and dyslexia impact learning. Neuroeducation aims to understand how these conditions best adapt to the learning environment.
Learning: In the classroom and beyond

Learning starts in childhood and continues into adulthood. Some learning happens in our spare time, and a lot in the workplace.

Many of the current applications of neuroeducation in the classroom are usable in the workplace. Since $80 billion is spent every year on corporate training in the United States, we need to ensure training interventions are effective. Neuroeducation could provide an answer, ensuring employees understand how the brain thinks, learn, and make decisions.

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Metacognition
Metacognition

Metacognition means “thinking about thinking” or “knowing about knowing.” The word “metacognition” means “above cognition”.

It’s translate into being aware of your own awar...

Components that make up metacognition
  • Metacognitive knowledge: What you know about yourself and others in terms of thinking and learning processes.
  • Metacognitive regulation: The methods you use to control your learning.
  • Metacognitive experiences: The thoughts and feelings you have during your learning process.
Metacognitive knowledge categories
  • Declarative knowledge: the knowledge you have about your learning style and about what the factors that influence you.
  • Procedural knowledge: what you know about learning in general - strategies you found or that you have already applied.
  • Conditional knowledge: it refers to knowing when and why you should use declarative and procedural knowledge.

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