Placebos are often used in clinical drug trials to determine how well a potential medicine will work.
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Basic emotions like anger, surprise, disgust, joy, fear and sadness are thought to be universal, and a naturally-occuring reflexive response to a given situation, event or circumstance.
Emotions are a basic response to change, both internal and external, sometimes simultaneously. While our mood lasts for hours or even days, emotions are fleeting, like waves.
Emotions are a spontaneous, motivating agent of change, making us act in our most natural, human way, before the mind comes in the picture, which looks at other signals before reacting.
Hurricanes used to be tagged with random numbers, sometimes latitude and longitude numbers, and other times they were named after the place where they came ashore.
Now, the World Meteorolog...
Names are easier to remember than numbers and technical terms. It is easier for the media to report on, and for people to pay attention to, than if a hurricane was named, for example, Hurrican Two.
Photosynthesis is a way to store stable energy.
Ancient bacteria used a thermal-sensing pigment called bacteriochlorophyll to detect the infrared signal generated by heat...
The process of capturing and storing sunlight meant that ancient bacteria had to burn water. The method of burning is only oxidation - tearing off of electrons from one atom and transferring those electrons to another.
Early photosynthetic bacteria captured the photons and used their energy to strip water of many of its protons and electrons to use for energy production. Later, chlorophyll could split two water molecules at the same time. We call this a Photosystem II chlorophyll-protein cluster.
The Photosystem II (water burning) can't keep going without the second stage Photosystem I. It involves taking the electrons that are stripped from the water molecules in the first step and using them before they decay.
Photosystem I keeps the hard-earned energy by sticking these electrons on a chemical assembly line. It is then used to convert CO2 into sugar that bacteria can use as food.
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