Comparative Advantage vs. Competitive Advantage - Deepstash

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Comparative Advantage Definition

Comparative Advantage vs. Competitive Advantage

When a company is at a better position to provide strong value to the customer, it is said to be at a competitive advantage.

Example: A cable TV operator offers low cost wifi internet services at great speeds and no downtime, which isn’t offered by the competition in that area. The decades of experience in cable TV makes for a competitive advantage.

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Marginal Benefit vs. Marginal Cost
Marginal Benefit vs. Marginal Cost

Marginal benefit and marginal cost are two measures of how the cost or value of a product changes.

  • The marginal benefit is a measurement from the consumer
Marginal Benefit

A marginal benefit change in a consumer's advantage if they use an additional unit of a good or service.

A marginal benefit usually declines as consumption increases. For example, the consumer may buy one ring for $100, but only willing to buy another if the second ring is $50. The consumer's marginal benefit reduces from $100 to $50 from the first to the second good.

Marginal Cost

Producers consider marginal cost, which is the small but measurable change in the expense to the business if it produces one additional unit.

In producing a product, efficiency in productivity can result in making more products in the same amount of time. The cost of raw materials may also go down if it is purchased in bulk, therefore, decreasing the marginal cost.

A financial crisis
A financial crisis

A financial crisis is often associated with a panic or a bank run where investors sell off assets or withdraw money from savings accounts.

  • Asset prices drop in value.
  • Consu...
Causes of a financial crisis

Generally, a crisis is caused if institutions or assets are overvalued, and can be worsened by panic and herd-like investor behaviour.

Contributing factors include systemic failures, unexpected or uncontrollable human behaviour, regulatory absence or failures, or contagions that is like a virus that spread from one institution or country to the next. If left unchecked, an economic crisis can cause a recession or depression.

Financial crisis examples
  • The Stock Crash of 1929. On Oct. 24, 1929, share prices collapsed after a period of wild speculation and borrowing to buy shares. It led to the Great Depression, which was felt worldwide. One trigger of the crash was a drastic oversupply of commodity crops, which led to a steep decline in prices.
  • The 20007-2008 Global Financial Crisis. This was the worst economic disaster since the Stock Market Crash of 1929. It started with a subprime mortgage lending crisis in 2007. Then it moved into a global banking crisis with the failure of investment bank Lehman Brothers in September 2008.
Management of Common Pool Resources
Management of Common Pool Resources

Political science professor Elinor Ostrom showed that common-pool resources, such as water supplies or fish, can be effectively managed collectively without government or p...

Behavioural Economics

The economic theory of expected utility maximization says that people will act out of rational self-interest. But psychologist Daniel Kahneman showed that it is incorrect.

  • Common cognitive biases cause people to use faulty reasoning to make irrational decisions, such as the anchoring effect, the planning fallacy, and the illusion of control.
  • People make decisions by using irrational guidelines such as perceived fairness and loss aversion, which are based on feelings, attitudes, and memories.
  • People tend to use general rules, such as representativeness, to make judgments in contradiction to the laws of probability.
Asymmetric Information
  • In 2001, George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, and Joseph E. Stiglitz won the prize "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information."
  • Economic models predicated on perfect information are often misguided. In reality, one party usually has superior knowledge, such as in the car market, where sellers know more than buyers about the quality of their vehicles and can lead to a market of lemons (adverse selection.)
  • Better-informed market participants can transmit information to lesser-informed participants. Job applicants can use educational attainment as a signal to prospective employers about their likely productivity; corporations can signal their profitability to investors by issuing dividends.