82 STASHED IDEAS
A logical fallacy is reasoning that contains a flaw.
Many logical fallacies rely on false premises:
... is a faulty assumption that becomes the basis of an argument and makes it logically unsound. For example, all birds can fly. Penguins can't fly. Therefore, penguins aren't birds. The premise that all birds can fly is false since some birds can't fly.
A false premise underpins many logical fallacies, making it essential to understand them.
Someone might choose to rely on a particular implicit premise because it is evident to all participants. Or, someone might decide to rely on an implicit false premise while giving a speech because it will be harder for listeners to notice problems with it.
When you respond to the use of false premises, you should generally call them out as false, explain why they're false, and how them being false invalidates the argument.
From early on, chefs and cooks are trained in the art of mise-en-place. In preparation for a particular dish, every single item needed is in front of them before they even turn the water to a boil. They know what ingredients need to be added first and which utensil to use. They always know what step they're working on and never confused about what comes next.
We can make projects feel like a recipe where we move through the work step-by-step, starting with the end in sight.
Working on a project with no visible end in sight is like running a race without knowing where the finish line is.
Even if one can pick off small tasks, one can still feel weary. However, we can build resilience in progressing on these projects by following the principles of mise-en-place or translated "put in place."
At a start of a big project, it can be difficult to split up the work. You may not have all the information you need to define the steps.
How to get the necessary information to break down a big project:
Any subject can be learned with some practice and patience. Some subjects may appear harder because of the speed at which they are taught.
To fix this problem, you may need to put in more work. If you can't see everything at once, it just means you need to practice more of the pieces, so your mind does not have to juggle so many ideas simultaneously.
Intelligence is likely associated with a better generalised working memory.
A working memory is the ability to hold multiple ideas in your head at the same time. Those who are smarter have a bigger capacity to hold multiple ideas.
Intelligence is partly heritable, but there are ways to improve it in a general capacity. The best way to improve your working memory is to simply learn a lot. Learning creates chunks, which allows you to deal with more complex ideas.
The downside of learning is that it tends to be narrow, while intelligence is general.
Because we can increase our working memory within a subject, we can create new chunks and master very complicated ideas. The perceived difficulty is often the way subjects are taught. Only the smarter students will remain, the higher you go in maths or science. This leads teachers to skip over "trivial" steps, leading you feeling like you can't master it.
Solutions are for teachers to slow down the class or for the student to slow down the class using, for example, the Feynman Technique.
Some subjects feel like they require more intelligence. If understanding an idea requires you to take different ideas into account, it may be more challenging to keep track with a lower working memory. e.g. mathematical proofs.
Conversely, if a subject requires a large volume of memory, but each fact or idea is separate, it may require lots of practice and less working memory. E.g. history or law.
Note-taking will always be at the core of learning and education. We are often encouraged to take notes during lectures to have a record of the knowledge being shared by our teachers and gain a sense of familiarity with the subject.
There are many note-taking systems such as outlining, guided notes, and the famous Cornell notes. However, they do not result well when being recalled. No studies suggest that Cornell note-taking improves a student's performance better than free-flow writing.
To make good notes, you must take note of these three things:
In summary, actively engage with your notes. There are great methods such as mind mapping, digital gardening, and the Zettelkasten method.
The biggest difference between the two is that the former is easier to forget than the latter.
With note-making, it is easier to understand and remember because of the generation effect - the phenomenon wherein information is better remembered if it is actively created from your own mind rather than simple read in a passive way.
People can fool themselves into believing they understand something more deeply than they really do. It often comes from being focused on learning the wrong thing, such as the name of something instead of what it really is.
We have to learn when we know, when we don't know, what it is we know, and what it is we don't know.