Benford’s law is an observation about the distribution of first digits in unmanipulated numerical data sets. Benford’s law states that the first digit in naturally occurring collections of numbers ...

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**In a number set 0 to 99**

11% of the numbers start with 1. Likewise, with every other digit from 2 to 9.

**In a number set 0 to 199**

more than 50% of ...

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Benford’s law can uncover fictitious numbers in random data sets because data manipulated for tax evasion purposes will likely deviate from Benford’s law, and in that case it is supposed that there...

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The chi-square test has the following steps:

- determine the expected frequency of the first digit;
- determine the observed frequency of the first digit;
- calculate the diffe...

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