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What is artificial intelligence?

https://www.sciencefocus.com/future-technology/artificial-intelligence-ai/

sciencefocus.com

What is artificial intelligence?
Everything you need to know about the history of AI, what we mean by 'deep learning', and if we can really trust artificial intelligence.

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Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been around since the 1950s. The original pioneers dreamed of a computer that could perform tasks like humans, such as playing chess or translating languages. But the plans didn't come to fruition, and AI soon fell out of favour.

AI technology continued to improve exponentially over the next few decades. Many organisations now embrace AI as a core element of their business.

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There are different kinds of AI

Deep learning is just one kind of AI, where AI is loosely inspired by the way our brains work.

Some AIs use advanced statistics to help computers make predictions; others use logic to make deductions about their environment, while others simulate evolution or even swarms of bees to find solutions to difficult problems.

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AI and human intelligence

The more advanced AIs can recognise features in images better than us, give expert opinions more reliably than us, and play many games better than us.

But, AI can still not be made with the flexibility and learning capacity of the human brain. Neither do we understand how intelligence arises in humans, making it hard to match AIs with human intelligence.

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What AI is used for

When you unlock your phone by looking at it, an AI has recognised your face. AIs check for fraud every time you buy something online, monitor your online shopping behaviour, suggest news stories that you are more likely to be interested in, and answer questions in online help desks.

AIs can compose music, design buildings, and paint artworks.

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AI and trust

  • If an AI is trusted too much, we may get into trouble. For example, the need for a human in driverless cars.
  • If we train AI with biased data, then the AI will also be biased.
  • AI will lead to job losses, but it will also create many jobs.

AI is created to help us and should not be feared. Like all future technologies, we need to ensure that it is used responsibly.

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Qualia: Experiencing Sensations

Qualia relates to the raw sensations of experience, like colours, smells, sounds.

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Neuroevolution

Neuroevolution is a form of artificial intelligence. It is a meta-algorithm, an algorithm for designing algorithms. It adopts the principles of biological evolution in order to design smarter algor...

Evolutionary algorithms

Traditionally, evolutionary algorithms are used to solve specific problems. For instance, the ability to control a two-legged robot. Solutions that perform the best on some metrics are selected to produce offspring.

In spite of successes, these algorithms are more computationally intensive than approaches such as "deep learning."

The steppingstone principle

It goes beyond traditional evolutionary approaches. It explains innovation. Instead of optimizing for a specific goal, it embraces the creative exploration of a diverse population of solutions.

The steppingstone’s potential can be seen by analogy with biological evolution: feathers likely evolved for insulation and only later became handy for flight.

Deep Play

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