Sapiens Summary 2023 - Deepstash

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Sapiens Summary

About Sapiens Book

New York Times Bestseller

A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg

From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.”

One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us?

Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas.

Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become?

Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

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Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari

“People don’t like to think, if one thinks, one must reach conclusions. Conclusions are not always pleasant.” — Helen Keller

YUVAL NOAH HARARI

“I encourage all of us, whatever our beliefs, to question the basic narratives of our world, to connect past developments with present concerns and not to be afraid of controversial issues"

YUVAL NOAH HARARI

374

A Race Of Cooks

A Race Of Cooks

  • The best thing fire did was cook.
  • Cooking killed germs and parasites that infested food.
  • The advent of cooking enabled humans to eat more kinds of food, to devote less time to eating, and to make do with smaller teeth and shorter intestines.
  • Whereas chimpanzees spend five hours a day chewing raw food, a single hour suffices for people eating cooked food.

353

The Tree Of Knowledge

The Tree Of Knowledge

  • You could never convince a monkey to give you a banana by promising him limitless bananas after death in monkey heaven.
  • But why is it important? After all, fiction can be dangerously misleading or distracting.
  • People who go to the forest looking for fairies and unicorns would seem to have less chance of survival than people who go looking for mushrooms and deer.
  • And if you spend hours praying to non-existing guardian spirits, aren’t you wasting precious time, time better spent foraging, fighting and fornicating?

367

Great book, a must-read for anyone who wishes to understand humans.

Food Chain

Food Chain

In the food chain, humans were supposed to be on the level of monkeys. The ability to adapt without any change in the DNA is what made humans superior to any other animal. But such a sudden rise in the food chain without proper evolutionary development led humans to be always afraid and insecure in the back of their minds, similar to how monkeys are afraid of their predators.

108

Gossip

Gossip

The power of fiction and gossip led humans to collaborate on a massive scale. But beyond a group of 30 people, we cannot completely understand other people. Hence, humans have an evolutionary tendency to gossip about other people, to find out if they are safe and could be trusted.

119

Evolutionary Success

Evolutionary Success

Humans didn't domesticate wheat. In terms of evolution, it is wheat that domesticated humans. Humans became slaves to crops, tending to them every day, increasing their population, even at the cost of their aching backs.

124

From a biological perspective, nothing is unnatural. Whatever is possible is by definition also natural, a truly unnatural behaviour, one that goes against the law of nature, simply cannot exist, so it would need no prohibition. 

145

Happiness and growth goes hand in hand

The most important finding is that happiness does not really depend on objective conditions of either wealth, health or community, rather it depends on the correlation between objective conditions and subjective expectations, like, if you want a bullock cart and get a bullock cart, you're content, if you want a brand new ferrari and get a second-hand fiat you feel deprived.

140

What is happiness?

According to Buddhism, the root of suffering is neither the feeling of pain nor of sadness nor even of meaninglessness. Rather the real root of suffering is this never-ending and pointless pursuit of ephermal feelings, which causes us to be in a constant state of tension, restlessness and dissatisfaction. Due to this pursuit the mind is never satisfied. Even when experiencing pleasure, it is not content, because it fears this feeling might soon disappear, and craves that this feeling should stay and intensify.

170

Imagined Realities.

Imagined Realities.

Over the years, people have woven an incredible complex network of stories. Within this network, fictions not only exist, but also accumulate immense power. The kinds of things that people create through this network of stories are known in academic circles as fictions, social constructs or imagined realities. 

29

Collective Imagination

Collective Imagination

Fiction helps us not merely to imagine things, but to do so collectively. Such myths gives us the unprecedented ability to cooperate flexibly in large numbers. 

25

YUAL NOAH HARARI.

There are no gods, no nations, no money and no human rights, except in our collective imagination.

YUAL NOAH HARARI.

35

Diprotodons

Diprotodons

Diprotodon is an extinct genus of gigantic quadrupedal marsupial native to Australia during the Pleistocene epoch. Diprotodon meaning in Greek "two forward teeth". The genus is currently considered monotypic, containing only Diprotodon optatum, the largest known marsupial to have ever existed

23

Neanderthal

Neanderthal

Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans who lived in Eurasia until about 40,000 years ago. They most likely went extinct due to assimilation into the modern human genome, great climatic change, disease, or a combination of these factors.

The main difference between Neanderthal and Homo sapiens is that Neanderthals were hunter-gatherers whereas Homo sapiens spend a settled life, producing food through agriculture and domestication.

23

Brain Size

Brain Size

Mammals Weighing 60 kilograms have an average brain size of 200 cubic cms. Modern sapiens averaging 1,200 - 1,400 cubic cms. Neanderthals brain size was even bigger.

13

Jumbo Brain Is A Jumbo Drain

Jumbo Brain Is A Jumbo Drain

In sapiens, the brain consumes 25% of body’s energy when the body is in rest. While comparing with apes it is high, who consumes only 8% of energy in rest.

13

Early Birth For Safe Of Women

Early Birth For Safe Of Women

Women who gave birth earlier was able to survive because of the child’s small brain and head. Death in child birth was higher when the size of the brain and head increased.

16

YUVAL NOAH HARARI

There is no god, no nation, no money, no human rights, no law and no justice, outside the common imagination of human beings.

YUVAL NOAH HARARI

16

Homo Sapiens

Homo Sapiens

Evolution has made Homo sapiens, like other social mammals, a xenophobic creature. Sapiens instinctively divide humanity into two parts, ‘we’ and ‘they’.

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An amazing book that briefs the history of the world not only as dates and events, but as such that you feel it!! Fluid in logic, easy-to-understand and eye-opening!! Helps to better understand the present and also sheds a bright light into the future; both far and near‼‼

<p>Sapiens: A brief history of...

Sapiens: A brief history of humankind!!

5

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