In the Inner Citadel, Hadot applies to Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations his characteristic interpretative approach: treating ancient philosophy as a “way of life” in particular one which provides its students with “spiritual exercises” to enable them to make progress towards wisdom and treating ancient philosophical texts with attention to the “forms of discourse” or constraints of genre, tradition, and audience that affected their production.
The Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was the last famous Stoic philosopher of antiquity. He faced one of the worst plagues in European history.
During the Antonine Plague, he wrote a book, known as The Meditations, which can be viewed as a manual for developing the mental resilience skills required to cope with a difficult situation.
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