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Perspectives across borders

Many conflicts take place across international borders. To see the situation from the point of view of adversaries, both perspective taking and perspective giving should be present.

Research suggests that perspective giving is more valuable for minority or marginalized groups, while perspective taking is more valuable for the majority or dominant groups.



It involves being able to see the point of view of someone you usually consider to be part of an outgroup.

Research finds that being able to offer another point of view - especially if you're part of the outgroup - can be just as important to social change as perspective-taking.

Both perspective-taking and perspective-giving are powerful tools to help negotiate differences, particularly between groups of different power dynamics.

Although similar, perspective-taking is not the same as empathy. Empathy falls short in trying to reduce polarization. In fact, empathy appeared to make things worse.

We tend to feel empathy more towards people like us, that we can relate to. If an outgroup attacks an ingroup, the empathic concern doesn't help.

Empathic concern is an emotional form of empathy, which is based on our gut responses.

Perspective-taking is consciously and intellectually taking the viewpoint of our opponents, even if they have no emotional warmth towards us. The goal is to understand why they feel the way they do.

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In 2018, there was still a lot of discrimination going on when it came to voting: election officials would close polling places, letting communities of color without the chance to vote or even cut voting hours, all in order to discriminate the black population. However, in November 2018, a record number of votes was recorded, with many women and candidates of color participating in the election process.



He was not looking to make big money. His heart always wanted to do something great and original, to leave a mark. He recorded new music from upcoming artists, only to stop doing that once the real surge in sales was about to begin.

  • First Lawyer: John Mercer Langston passed the bar in Ohio in 1854.
  • First Supreme Court Justice: Thurgood Marshall served in the U.S. Supreme Court from 1967 to 1991.
  • First Senator: Hiram Rhodes Revels represented the state of Mississippi from February 1870 to March 1871.
  • First Woman Representative: Shirley Chisholm was elected to the House of Representatives in 1968. She represented the state of New York.
  • First Black President: Barack Obama became U.S. president in 2008.
  • First Black Vice President: In 2021, Kamala Harris became vice president.