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Virginia Apgar, an American anesthesiologist and medical researcher, created a test to assess the health of new-born babies quickly and to find out if infants need immediate neonatal medical care.
The 'Apgar Score' continues to be used as a standard practice worldwide, and is accredited with saving the lives of millions of babies.
Virginia Apgar noticed that although infants mortality declined between 1930 and 1950, the death rate for babies in the first 24 hours after birth stayed the same.
Apgar began recording the differences between healthy newborns and newborns requiring medical attention. She created a test to asses the health of newborn babies.
The Apgar scoring system gives each newborn a score of 0,1, or 2 across five categories. Zero is given to the worst possible condition, and two is the ideal condition.
The test is performed 1 minute after the baby is born, then again after 5 minutes. A total score of 3 or below is categorized as critically low and in need of immediate medical care.
Lucy Wills was a hematologist who discovered that folic acid could be used to prevent life-threatening types of anemia in pregnant women.
Will's research into women's health during pregnancy has changed prenatal care and saved many lives. Today folic acid is recommended for all pregnant women.
The German scientist was the first person to identify electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength that we today know as an x-ray.
The most common usage of x-rays includes detecting broken or fractured bones, heart problems, breast cancer, scoliosis, and tumors. X-ray machines are used to help save the lives of millions of people.
McLean, first an American truck driver and later a businessman, developed the modern intermodal shipping container.
The development of standardized shipping containers significantly reduced the cost of transporting cargo across the world.