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Anthropology vs. Sociology: What's the Difference?

Anthropology

It is the study of humans and the ways they live. The goal is to understand human diversity and cultural differences. The four primary sub-fields:

  • Archeology focuses on the objects humans have made.
  • Biological anthropology examines the ways humans adapt to different environments.
  • Cultural anthropology is interested in how humans live and make sense of their surroundings, studying folklore, cuisine, arts, and social norms.
  • Linguistic anthropology is the study of the ways different cultures communicate.

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Anthropology vs. Sociology: What's the Difference?

Anthropology vs. Sociology: What's the Difference?

https://www.thoughtco.com/anthropology-vs-sociology-4685772

thoughtco.com

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Key Ideas

Sociology

It studies the ways groups of people interact with each other and how their behavior is influenced by social structures, categories, and institutions. It has many tenets:

  • Individuals belong to groups, which influence their behavior.
  • Groups have characteristics independent of their members.
  • Sociology focuses on patterns of behavior among groups (defined by gender, race, class, etc.)

Anthropology and sociology careers 

Anthropology and sociology degrees can lead to a career as a teacher, public sector employee, or academic. The degree can be a stepping stone to a career in politics, public administration, or law.

Non-academic careers for anthropologists include public sector research at organizations like the World Bank or UNESCO, or working as freelance research consultants.

Sociologists who have a PhD can work as analysts in public policy organizations, or as demographers, non-profit administrators, or research consultants.

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Comparative Musicology

The first musical ethnography was published by the early comparative musicologist Carl Stumpf, which documented the origins and the evolution of the art.

They looked at the changing landscapes and the nomadic nature of influences. Comparative musicology also looked at the classification of musical instruments and systems.

Modern Ethnomusicology

The 80s and 90s saw the study of ethnomusicology shift from its traditional field towards more contemporary forms of music like rap, rock, salsa, afro-pop, and Hindustani classical music.

Music started to intersect with technology, globalization, media and even social unrest, making the study vast enough to have it’s graduate programs in major universities.

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Why progress studies are important
Why progress studies are important
  • We still need a lot of progress for major challenges. We haven't yet cured all diseases; we don't yet know how to solve climate change; we don't yet understa...
Benefiting from an organized effort

The world would benefit from an organized effort from various disciplines to understand:

  • How we should identify and train brilliant young people.
  • How the most effective small groups exchange and share ideas.
  • Which incentives should exist for participants in innovative ecosystems (scientists, entrepreneurs, managers, and engineers)
  • How much organizations differ in productivity. One recent study found that teaching better management practices to firms in Italy improved productivity by 49 percent over 15 years compared with peer firms that didn’t receive the training.
  • How scientists should be selected and funded. A recent paper concluded that long-term grants to high-potential scientists made those scientists 96 percent more likely to produce breakthrough work.
Progress Studies antecedents
  • The Center for Science and the Imagination at Arizona State University tried to encourage optimistic thinking about the future through fiction and narrative.
  • An applied history movement is needed to help draw lessons from history and apply them to real-world problems.
  • In a world with Progress Studies, a new focus on progress belongs to a school of thought that would encourage a decentralized shift in priorities among academics, philanthropists, and funding agencies. This has already happened in climate-science research and the designation of Keynesian economics, which helped economists focus on fiscal policy as a tool for recession fighting.

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Multicultural people

Multicultural individuals commonly think, perceive, behave, and respond to global workplace issues in more complex ways than monocultural individuals.

Some multicultural individuals translate...

Identifying with a culture
  • Monocultural: Identity with one cultural group
  • Slightly multicultural: Identity primarily with one culture, and to a lesser extent with another culture
  • Moderately multicultural: Identity strongly with more than one culture
  • Highly multicultural: Identity with more than two cultures.
Multicultural minds

People can be categorized as multicultural by:

  • Having the ability to function in many cultures with ease.
  • Knowing multiple languages.
  • Having a multicultural mind, and can think in different ways.

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