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Centers of Progress: Rome (Roads)

Invention Of Roads And How Rome Developed Them Further

  • The first roads were invented in the Bronze Age in 4000 BCE, created by the older Indus Valley Civilization. This was the first time that straight, 90 degree intersecting roads were seen.
  • The Roman civilization created advanced road systems that encouraged travel and connection, forming a lifeline of connecting various cultures, institutions and beliefs.
  • The Romans managed to create major roadways and highways with traffic segregation, something unheard of before.
  • They had 372 roads with 29 major highways. The first major roadway was called the Appian Way, connecting Rome with Capua, back in 312 BCE. This road was used efficiently during the Samnite Wars in the same era.

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The Library of Ashurbanipal
The Library of Ashurbanipal
  • In the mid-19th century, archaeologists found the ruins of the world's oldest known library in Nineveh (modern-day Iraq).
  • It dates back to the 7th century B.C and includes 30,...
The Library of Alexandria
  • The ancient world's intellectual jewel was established by general Ptolemy I Soter after Alexander the Great's death in 323 B.C.
  • At its peak, it may have included over 500,000 papyrus scrolls containing works of literature and texts on history, law, mathematics, and science.
  • The library was supposedly burned in 48 B.C. after Julius Caesar accidentally set fire to Alexandria's harbour during a battle against the Egyptian ruler Ptolemy XIII.
  • However, most historians believe that it only came to an end in 270 A.D. during the reign of the Roman emperor Aurelian, while others believe it occurred during the fourth century.
The Library of Pergamum
  • The Library of Pergamum was constructed in the third century B.C. by members of the Attalid dynasty in modern-day Turkey.
  • It was housed in a temple complex devoted to Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom.
  • The ancient chronicler Pliny the Elder said the Library of Pergamum became so famous that it was considered to be in "keen competition" with the Library of Alexandria.
Historical Significance Of Florence, Italy
Historical Significance Of Florence, Italy

Known as the ‘Jewel Of Italian Renaissance’, the city of Florence has countless groundbreaking developments, seeing advances in politics, finance, business, engineering, philosophy, science, archit...

The Story Of Florence: The Renaissance City

Now a fashion city, Florence was initially well-known for woollen cloth, creating a central marketplace for the best-quality wool, cleaned to perfection.

The success of the fabric business made the Florentines rich, leading to new financial breakthroughs and innovations, like bank loan facilities, which further enhanced the city’s wealth.

Wealthiest City In Europe

Innovative banking practices like bills of exchange (to facilitate-out-of-city payments) and double-entry bookkeeping, along with the flourishing cloth industry made Florence the wealthiest city in Europe.

The city, flush with wealth, started to focus on art, humanism, creation, enjoyment of life’s pleasures, and intellectual pursuits. It framed itself as ‘The New Rome’ and was a true Renaissance city due to it’s elevated and classist thinking that offered freedom, prosperity and knowledge.

Tips for Getting Back to Sleep
  • Put the phone away: a big obstacle in your way is light.
  • Ignore the clock: it’s only add to your stress.
  • Don’t be afraid to get...