Democritus and the existence of atoms
We know about atoms because of scientists and electron microscopes, but the idea goes back to the ancient Greeks.
Democritus first articulated the idea of atoms. He argued that it must exist. If we continually halved something, there would be no endpoint. Therefore, there must be a fundamental unit to the world from which everything else is made.
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Democritus was then the first "determinist" in that he stated that there could be no free will or choice - we are just moving to the laws of physics. His conclusions about atoms could only be proven millennia later.
One of Democritus' question was how atoms made objects. He noticed that the world is constantly changing, dying, growing. The worlds flow, therefore atoms must flow. They can't just be still.
Democritus reasoned that atoms join into various combinations, then emit eidôla (composite blobs of atoms) outward, like ripples in water. This atomic radiation is then picked up by us and translated into ideas or sensations.
A hypothesis is an initial statement regarding the cause and effect in a specific situation. It can be tested by experimentation and observation or by statistical analysis of probabilities from data. A useful hypothesis allows predictions by using deductive reasoning.
Sometimes a hypothesis is developed before new knowledge or technology can test it. The ancient Greeks proposed the concept of atoms, but it could only be tested centuries later.
Many insights of Albert Einstein are now part of popular imagination: black holes, time warps, and wormholes show up in movies and books.
Less famous, but probably the most revolutionary part of Einstein's phenomena, is a simple idea that shows how pieces fit together and illuminate the road ahead.
The braneworld theory states that in order for the universe to have survived, it would have had to create relatively small "black holes". Moreover, this theory can be experimented upon.
This theory suggests that we are in a three dimensional membrane that exist inside the bulk or the higher dimensional space.
In the case of the Randall-Sundrum model, such tests could involve measuring the gravitational waves that are emitted by the black holes thus linking one brane to another.
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