Problem Solving


Once you gained some understanding in a field, follow citation trails. There will often be dozens of other papers cited and can result in an extensive reading list. Thus it is helpful to limit yourself to the few most promising ones.

Citations need two factors: frequency and relevance. Works cited more often are more central to a topic. To ensure that you don't spend too much time going down rabbit holes, aim for breadth-first.

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Problem Solving


Legal standards would often ask what the 'reasonable person' would do. But we should consider who this person is.

The reasonable person is not the average person as average people can do unreasonable things; neither is it the ideal person. Instead, the reasonable person represents someone common as well as good.

Failure is part of the learning process and a good leader understands that it cannot be a sunny day every day.

The team members are not insulated from failure but are given the space and support to create their own path towards success.

  • Understanding a system provides something comprehensible to use as a starting point.
  • It makes it possible to come up with something more interesting or useful. If you try to start a creative effort from nothing, you’ll end up with mere chaos.
Focused and Diffuse Mode

Focused and diffuse modes provide two models for how we develop, elaborate, deepen and broaden connections. Both methods are important.

  • The focused mode of learning is about bringing related concepts together into a unit, called a chunk. 
  • The diffuse mode operates through a wider net of connecting general ideas across different fields. We use this diffuse mode while we sleep, exercise or daydream.

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