Functional Programming - Deepstash

# Functional Programming

joshi-aparna.github.io

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## What Is Functional Programming

Funcational Programming is a declarative way of programming.

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## Immutability

Remember how we assign different values to a variable through out the program? How we use setters in classes to modify the value of class variables? That is not allowed in FP. A variable once set remains unchanged. Sort of like, making all variables final.We usually think of variables as vessels that hold the values. The vessel can hold different values at different times. But in FP, variables are just another name for their values. Like, PI is always 3.14..Ever imagined a different value for PI? No? In the same way, every x, y in your program can now have a single value.

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## Functional Purity

If a function returns same value for the same argument every time, then the function is pure. That generally means that, the function cannot use any state values that could potentially change.

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## First Class Function

In OOP we treat data and functions separately. In FP, they are all the same. We can create an array of functions, pass a function as argument, return a function from a method.

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## Partial Application

Let's say there is a function that takes three arguments. Usually, we need to be aware of all three values to call this function, right? In partial application, the three arguments are provided at different times. I could not find a decent blog that explains this well. Here is the wikipedia page.

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## Recursion

Recursion is when a function calls itself and an end condition exists in the function to stop the method call. We could talk about this in depth another day. For now, here is a good explanation.

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## Composition

This is a method where we take simple functions and combine them into a more complex function. Let's say we have two methods f(x) = x * 2 //(timesTwo) and f(x) = x - 1 // (minusOne) . And we want to compute f(x) = 2x -1 . You call the timesTwo function first. With the output of timesTwo , you call the minusOne function. How would you code this?

The requirement here is that the next function takes as argument the same type that the previous function returns.

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