India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947 - Deepstash
India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947

India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947

Bipan Chandra, Mridula Mukherjee, Aditya Mukherjee, K. N. Panikkar, Sucheta Mahajan


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Permanent settlement

Permanent settlement

Land revenue was one of the major sources of income for Britishers in India. 

  1. Permanent settlement was also known as Zamindari System or Istamarari (Sthayi) Bandobast.
  2.  Lord Cornwallis introduced this system in Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, and districts of Benaras in 1793. Later it was structured by John Shore.
  3. Zamindars were act as middlemen between farmers and the East India Company. 


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Tax under Zamindari System

Tax under Zamindari System

  1. The zamindars were free to impose desired rent on farmers.
  2. Zamindars had to pay a fixed revenue of 10/11th or 89% to the East India Company and he keep the rest 1/11th or 11% to himself.
  3. Permanent settlement fixed the land rights of the members in perpetuity without any provision for fixed rent or occupancy right for actual cultivators.


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Land Revenue Systems in British India.

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