99 - Endgame | Vitalik Buterin - Deepstash

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Vitalik’s Thoughts on 2021

Blockchains are about creating new innovative ways to organize societies. NFTs are giving new business models to artists. He’s also stoked to see the increase of DAOs

Layer 2 solutions are going from theory to practice.

The Beacon chain proved itself and had its first hard fork. Testnets for “The Merge” is now available.

Maximalism is something that is unhealthy. It’s important to check out other ecosystems.


265 reads

The Merge

The Merge is the transition from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake (POS). No more miners.

The test nets have been running and solutions have been found for foreseeable edge cases.

The most important feature is enabling withdrawals for beacon chain validators after the post-merge hardfork. There will be a queue for withdrawal.

The typical user will need to update their Metamask


210 reads

The Surge

Scalability increases for rollups through sharding. Rollups – computation and storage are off-chain, but data stays on-chain. This allows for cheaper transactions.

Bandwidth will increase from 15-40 transactions per second (tps). Rollups will increase tps to 1500-4000 tps, rollups with sharding will increase to 100,000 tps

Eventually, all activity will transition to Layer 2.

If only the Merge and the Surge happen, Eth can last generations


176 reads

The Verge

The implementation of Merkle trees that enable stateless clients.

Stateless clients – don’t need the entire history of the blockchain to verify blocks. There will be proofs that verify the data. This allows validators to be much lighter, which is great for decentralization.

It democratizes access to everybody to be able to verify the validity of the chain.


159 reads

The Purge

In theory, this eliminates the need to store the dead weight of Ethereums history.

History vs state. State is like the countries record of who the citizens are. History is the citizen’s birth and death records.

There will be a state expiry implementation.

The core Idea is to simplify the past and remove the complexities of the code. Make it easier to run a node and debug.

Removes gas stipends, precompiles, simplifies logs, removes RLP, and finds solutions for dust accounts.

One may need to provide Merkle proofs to recover old data through more centralized services that have the historical data.


142 reads

The Splurge

ZKsnark everything! The EVM, beacon chain transition, signature verification. This makes it extremely easy for everyone to run a node.

Make smart contract wallets more like a first-class citizen

Proposer Builder Separation. (PBS)

Account Abstraction


166 reads

The Endgame

The entire space is based on decentralization and it’s Ethereum’s core value. . Ethereum started by compromising on scale, not decentralization. Other Layer 1s are trying the opposite.

The roadmaps are not completely final, but if everything on this roadmap is done, Vitalik would be happy.

Blockchains need to be cheap in order to foster main adoption


185 reads



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