25 Cognitive Biases, As Tweeted By Elon Musk - Deepstash

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Cognitive Biases

Cognitive Biases

A quick note about cognitive biases.

What are they?

Why is knowing about them crucial?

All humans make systematic errors in thinking—hurting our judgment.

Being aware of cognitive biases will make you less susceptible to them.

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282 reads

Fundamental Attribution Error

Fundamental Attribution Error

We judge everyone else on character but blame our shortcomings on the situation.

Example: If Jane is late for work, she’s lazy. If you’re late for work, it’s because of traffic.

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279 reads

Self-Serving Bias

Self-Serving Bias

We chalk failures up to the situation while taking all the credit for our successes.

Example: You earned that A through hard work & skill. Meanwhile, you got a poor grade because of external factors: bad professor, team assignment, etc.

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256 reads

Ingroup Favoritism

Ingroup Favoritism

We privilege those in our ingroup over those in an outgroup.

Example: Jackie works in your division, so you value her more than John, who works over in accounting.

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230 reads

Bandwagon Effect

Bandwagon Effect

Concepts, trends, and beliefs catch on as more people validate them.

Example: Jill believes buying an LV bag will make her look chic. Janet does, too.

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230 reads

Groupthink

Groupthink

We make irrational decisions just to avoid conflict.

Example: Jackie wants to go bowling. Joe wants to buy a cake for a dinner party. You suggest getting a cake in the shape of a bowling ball.

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208 reads

Halo Effect

Halo Effect

Focusing on one trait (positive or negative) as being indicative of the whole.

Example: “Brad must be a great entrepreneur; he’s amazing at golf!”

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208 reads

Moral Luck

Moral Luck

Equating moral superiority with a positive outcome and moral inferiority with a negative outcome.

Example: He won the election because he was morally superior to the loser.

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198 reads

False Consensus

False Consensus

We assume others agree with us by default.

Example: “Everybody knows that!”

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197 reads

Curse of Knowledge

Curse of Knowledge

We believe that everyone knows the same things we do.

Example: Jane gets frustrated with her son for not understanding multiplication right away.

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195 reads

Spotlight Effect

Spotlight Effect

We think people are paying far more attention to us than they are.

Example: Josh is worried everyone at work will notice he needs new shoes.

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191 reads

Availability Heuristic

Availability Heuristic

We make snap judgments based on the most recent information.

Example: When an airline reports a crash, ticket sales go down until people forget about the incident.

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166 reads

Defensive Attribution

Defensive Attribution

The tendency to blame others for your mistakes out of self-protection.

Example: Brad scapegoats Jill for submitting a bad company report even though he did all the research.

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150 reads

Just-World Hypothesis

Just-World Hypothesis

Believing the world to be inherently just, we interpret injustice as bad karma.

Example: Jackie broke her ankle because she made fun of Jill’s medical condition.

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146 reads

Naïve Realism

Naïve Realism

We privilege our “objective” view of reality over all others.

Example: “I see things for what they are—everyone else is misinformed.”

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147 reads

Naïve Cynicism

Naïve Cynicism

The assumption that others act only out of self-interest.

Example: “The only reason the boss gave us a bonus is to squeeze extra work out of us.”

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141 reads

Forer Effect (aka Barnum Effect)

Forer Effect (aka Barnum Effect)

We see ourselves reflected in things that could apply to many.

Example: “Today’s horoscope was spot-on!”

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140 reads

Dunning-Kruger Effect

Dunning-Kruger Effect

The overestimation of ability when one has little experience.

Example: The market firm’s new hire was confident he’d designed the perfect ad campaign, but it ended up losing money.

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129 reads

Anchoring

Anchoring

We make decisions based on first impressions.

Example: “The label says gluten-free. It must be good for me!”

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127 reads

Automation Bias

Automation Bias

We put too much trust in automated systems to fix our mistakes.

Example: “Grammarly suggested it; therefore, it’s correct.”

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135 reads

Google Effect (aka Digital Amnesia)

Google Effect (aka Digital Amnesia)

We don’t store information in our brains that’s conveniently found online.

Example: “Who was that actor in the latest Marvel film? I’ve Googled it like ten times...”

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136 reads

Reactance

Reactance

We go against orders, especially when we see them as an assault on our freedoms.

Example: “I don’t care if your sign says masks are required. I can do whatever I want.”

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132 reads

Confirmation Bias

We seek out (and retain) information that confirms what we already believe.

Example: Flat Earthers base their beliefs on a feeling, ignoring all evidence to the contrary.

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125 reads

Third-Person Effect

Third-Person Effect

We see ourselves as more immune to media than others.

Example: “See how brainwashed you’ve become?!”

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127 reads

Belief Bias

We tend to accept the outcome of an argument only if it matches what we believe.

Example: All fish can swim, and whales can swim; therefore, whales are fish.

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145 reads

Backfire Effect

You interpret evidence that disproves your belief as a confirmation of it.

Example: You insist the world is flat because NASA faked all those photographs of Earth.

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158 reads

CURATED BY

ralcal

Commercial art gallery manager

This is the first part of 50 cognitive biases, as tweeted in an infographic by Elon Musk.

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