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Some research found speaking more than one language can potentially improve your cognitive processes. But other studies found that bilinguals and monolinguals perform similarly.
Some studies suggest bilinguals and monolinguals use the brain differently to complete an executive function task, even if the performances are similar. Other studies found differences in brain structure, but how these differences manifest is inconsistent.
Being bilingual does affect your brain, but it depends on how you use it.
Some bilinguals learn a second language from birth. Others learn a second language much later. Some bilinguals continuously need to switch between their languages, while others speak one language at home and another at work. Different language experiences have distinct effects on how the brain adapts and performs. Moreover, these adaptations are dynamic with continued and changing experiences.
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